Study Notes for Term Test 1

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University of Toronto St. George
Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations
Zoe Mc Quinn

NMC343 Study Notes Key Points of Lecture 1 Egyptian Geography Egypt has three major areas of contact: Asia Nubia (Africa) And is across the Mediterranean from Europe But it also has buffer zones which limit direct contact, causing them to flourish in their security The Mediterranean The Lybian, Sudanese andArabian Deserts tA-mri, Ta-meri, The land of the hoe An allusion to the ability to grow food there - often there is a concern regarding access to good in the ancient world TAwi, ta-wi, the two lands Duality is very important in Egyptian religion and society; emphasis on balanced parts of a system where you cant have one without the other kmt, kemet, the black land Meaning that it is fertile Desert, Deshret, the red land there is death in the desert tA-SmAw, ta-shemau land of the reeds - referring to Upper Egypt The Nile and the riverlands Often represented by reeds tA-mhw, ta-mehu land of papyrus - referring to Lower Egypt The nile area was geographically different from Egypt - it was a lush green land with flourishing crops Delta was always lush and fertile nbw, nebu gold Refers to Nubia wAD-wr, wadj-wer the great blue-green Referring to the Mediterranean Ocean The ocean was a little scary to them iTrw, ichru the river Only one word for the Nile, which is at odds with the rest of their vocal Egyptian Concept of the Universe Ancient Egyptians thought that Egypt was the centre of the Universe Nun the waters Shu the air, or atmosphere Nut, the sky Geb, the earth Duat, the underworld Ra, the sun Akhet, the horizon NMC343 Study Notes Together they form a bubble, surrounded by water, expanded by air, with the sky as the circumference, held up by shu The heavens and the earth are married Heavens are female, Earth is male. If they were to meet the world would be destroys so shy stands between them 2 lives: you inhabit the Earth in your first life, then upon Death you join Osiris in the West and move downwards to the Duat to begin your second life To die in your second life means to die forever - this should be avoided! The Sun gives all life Kepre the beetle god is the symbolic of the young sun, or the sun rising in the morning (remember the beetle and the poo. Beetles feed on poo and are born in poo, egyptians thought of the sun as a big ball of poo being pushed through the sky by a beetle. Yuck.) Ra the sun at its strongest and most powerful Akhet, the old creator god representing the dying (setting) sun, the sun at its weakest point The horizon separates our lives, it is where the sun sets and rises. The Horizon is a contact point, and the time when the sun sets of rises is magical and dangerous Society Egypt is a hydraulic civilization. Without the nile it would not exist Every year, like clockwork, the Nile flooded No matter how bad it is in Egypt, it is still better than anywhere in time of famine Measuring yearly flood is vital Cannot be too high, or too low Need it to be consistent Fluctuations can be dangerous Nile-ometer measures flooding and dates from the Early Dynastic How the Nile floods determines history Calendars Agricultural Calendar Divided the year into 12 months and 3 seasons Axt-Akhet: the inundation, from mid-July to mid-November prt-Peret: literally coming forth, the growing season, from mid November to mid- March Smu-Shemu: harvest time, and the hottest time, from mid-March to mid-July Each season was 4 months of 30 days Solar and Lunar calendars (celestial calendars) Of which the heliacal rising (the rising of the dog star Sirius) is of major importance Regnal Calendars Problems with this include co-regencies, in which 2 kings reign simultaneously Climate and Historical Framework NMC343 Study Notes During the Paleolithic period around 400,000 BC in North EastAfrica the climate is very wet. Not many people lived near the Nile source as they didnt necessarily need to as food was easily come by Later, at around 25,000 BC there is an onset of direr climate and people are forced into a smaller area around the Nile.Amore densely packed population changes how people deal with one another From 10,000 BC to 5,000 BC during the Mesolithic period we start to see domestication as an alternative food source to hunting and gathering Then at 6,000 BC there is a gradual moistening of the climate, leading to a growth spurt population-wise Resources Egypt has unlimited access to stone and has a vast amount of mineral wealth Those things imported included resources such as wood, precious stones and metals (lapis lazuli fromAfghanistan andAssyrian silver) as well as cretan olive oil Essentially, they valued anything that wasnt native to Egypt Government and Social Structure Pharaoh Term not used till New Kingdom Living pharaoh called nTr nfr good god Deceased pharaoh called nTr aA: great god Gods are always great; kind foes not reach that status until death Sole and absolute ruler On behalf of all he keeps the universe safe The name of the pharaoh is very powerf Five-fold titulary from the 5th Dynasty onward: Horus name represents kings identity as Horus, god of sky. Written and contained in a serekh (palace). Personification of Pharaoh as a guy who lives in the palace who is Horus 2 ladies name where the vulture represents Upper Egypt and the Cobra represents Lower Egypt Golden Horus name, which only comes into play in the 4th dynasty Prenomen which is written in a cartouche. It is also called a throne name Nomen which is given at birth Vizier Usually 1, sometimes 2 (for the two lands) Answers only tot he king In charge of all projects of the king Nomarch Rulers of nome(s) which are geographical divisions Bureaucracy of Officials Semi- to fully- literate NMC343 Study Notes Essentially trained workers in many things such as engineering Make up part of the court Craftsmen and peasants Craft-men make art for palace Peasants and farmers man the land, which technically the king owned Corvee labour = conscripted labour. I.e., cant pay taxes? Here! Build this pyramid instead! Religious Terminology Polytheism: multiple gods Monotheism: oneness of god Pantheism: universe and god are one Homotheism: belief in one god, without exclusion of existence of other gods Iconography: symbols of a deity, access to deeper thought Multiplicity: one god having many manifestations Syncretism: taking gods and mushing them together to make one super god Dyads: 2 gods linked in myth, scripture and faith E.g., Horus and Seth; god of sky, god of chaos. Triads = 3 together E.g. Osiris, Isis and Horus Ogdoads = 8 in four pairs Enneads = 9 together Questions for Lecture 1 Q: What were the three major areas of contact for Egypt and how did they impact the Egyptians? Asia Africa Across the Mediterranean from Europe No direct contact, therefore flourished in their security Q: What are three of the ancient Egyptian names for Egypt and what are their significance? tA-mri, Ta-meri, the land of the hoe: an allusion to the ability to grow food there. Often access to food is a great concern in the ancient world TAwi, ta-wi, the two lands: duality is very important in Egyptian religion and society; emphasis on balanced parts of a system where you cant have one without the other kmt, kemet, the black land: meaning that the land is fertile Desert, Deshret the red land: meaning there is death in the desert tA-SmAw, ta-shemau land of the reeds: referring to Upper Egypt which is often represented by reeds tA-mhw, at-mehu land of papyrus: referring to Lower Egypt Q: How was Egypt dependent on the Nile? Egypt was a hydraulic civilization and owed its success (and existence) to the Nile
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