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University of Toronto St. George
Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations
James Reilly

Tuesday, January 10, 2012 Lecture One: Ottomans and Provincial Notables Arab provinces in the Ottoman Empire: changing balance of power in the 18th century. • Pre Modern Society - The land mass from Morocco in the West to Iraq andArabia to the East - It is an linguistic area. Amajority of people that speakArabic. - Linguistic and national identity. - Religious, regional or distinct are the ways the people of these lands would identity themselves. - Low or seasonal rain fall makes important for the people - The intersection of three continents created a good economy in the modern era and great trad- ing roots - Merchants and scholars could feel themselves at home because of the high culture of Islam and education. Marked by the classical arab culture and language. This is all shown in all the differ- ent regions of the middle east that steam out from other languages. In the modern era people looked at the classic period of high cultural as maintained and an attempt to keep an arab identi- ty. Only upper class which was a small group were able to be a part of this high culture. There was a Rustic religious belief among the poorer and more majority group of people. • Aline we can draw from pre modern to modern -For many decades the year 1798 is the modern era -That is the year Napoleon left France -Every where in Europe they also agree with this date -Napoleon invaded Egypt and it helped the country and after his defeat the British would go into Egypt. -The Ottoman empire held land up to the black sea and most of theArab world and into the fer- tile crescents and into North Africa and the Hidjaz -The empire powers took over these areas because of provincial ruling elites. -To move outside the Ottoman empire to cutting ties with Europe. -Amajority ofArabs lived in the shadow of the Ottoman empire for 400 years, in the 19th centu- ry down played the Ottoman Empire heritage. Mid 20th century historians blamed the Ottomans for what happened but now in this century they make the connection between the two groups and what the relationships between the Ottomans and theArabs that affected the area. -The Pre modern Ottoman state: did not apply Turkish =had taxes =wanted peace =Ottoman status is a high status to receive. You needed to be muslim to be ottoman =Ottoman society was rooted in hierarchy =Ottoman sultans not only used there wealth for themselves but for schools, canals, towns and cities. =Rural people were the outside looking in =Ottoman rule in theArab provinces was ruled by two groups : Sultan = Grand Vizier = Pashas (the military members were not muslims) they become connect over time Sultan= Shaykh al - islam = Qadis (religious islamic group) Ulama (religious clerks to the kings) the Ottomans bureracry the Ulama and they were in charge in the higher up schools and special- ist in Islamic law. The working language was arab if they were elite Ulama. There were also low- er ranking ones from promising families (provincial Ulama). -The Spanish Monarchy was still in the pre modern world -They had expelled the muslims and jews out of Spain -The Syria lands and Egypt provided important revenues -The holy lands helped the Ottomans clam and govern the lands of Mecca and Medina -The arab provinces were not high up but they were still important -Different patterns of governed developed in the middle east -Control in the step lands were harder because of the terrains and they were less important be- cause they did not created a lot of revenue. Lords and Shakes were people named by the govern- ment to govern in the regions and if they did not obey they would have harsh consequences. -Ottoman governs of different lords would support their own and mix into the politics • Egypt and the Western Hijaz -Egypt was exporting coffee and spices to the markets of the east -Supplied other regions with wheat -Cairo would be one of the jumping off points of the pilgrimage to Mecca and Medina. -By the 1700s the troops were no longer being sent to Egypt but part of their society. -Mamluk slave soldiers held positions in the provincial government and the control of taxation -The holy land of the Hijaz was linked to Egypt because of the holy cities. -The Ottomans got control of the holy cities once a year during the time of the pilgrimage. -In 1705 a local dynasty in Tunis called Hussaynids were created to control the taxable surplus -Four recognizable school of sunni law in these regions. One in the Ottoman empire called Hanafi and another one called Maliki. -In Algiers the corresponding office to the Tunis is the Dey from 1710 automatically became the governors. This was an effected government by hierarchy.Algiers was build up as an Ottoman garrison town. -Tripoli resembled Algiers but on a smaller scale. In 1711 the Qaramanli family were the rulings dynasty. They were also a Dey grouping. - North Africa was seen as a frontier. Thursday, January 12, 2012 Lecture Two: Continuation -The GreatArab cities were the largest in the area (map below) -If you look at detail studies of the old cities you notice a topical and physical extensions of these cities during the Ottoman period -Regulated Ottoman traded with friendly Christian European states. This growth led to Christians in the Ottoman areas. They began to compete with old Jewish families for trading. The wealthiest families were the merchants, money leaders and bankers (elite class).These Christian and Jews were looked at important to the economy and humble people that were looked at fondly. They would trade with the Ottoman Muslims and formed relationships with them as well. They would inter marriage with one another and becomeArabized because if the inter mixing. -The most important trade was internal Ottoman trade, not the trade with Europe.Also another important trade was with the Indian Ocean which was controlled by Muslims. New trade good was coffee (new thing, big demand). There were also the pilmimagae to Mecca and that was an- other trade because people from all over the Medterrrian would come to the holy city and would trade goods along the way. -Jewish merchants in the Red sea trade declined when the Ottomans rose in trade affairs but the Jewish role in the Red Sea trade continued with the Muslims and theArabs. -Not many families continued the merchant work after generations, they focused more on reli- gious education -Ashraf: people who were recognized as descendants from the prophet. -Schools based on the shira laws were created. The Ulama were the ones teaching in these schools. -Local Ottomans and the people in that area had mixed and the status of the language ofArab was enforced and religious education to study in Instabul. -The Ottomans patronized the Sunni Muslim in there daily activities. The Ulama’s come up with poems and pros that related to the time period. • Concept of the changing balance of power I. Ottoman: where the elites and the people saw the power in themselves and the relationship with Europe. -A’yan: the people of the ruling groups: The provincial Ottomans, the big international Mer- chants, The High Ranking Ulama were all frequently linked to business and marriage. -The shifting power led to taking out the lands from Instabul. We can see the beginning on the 18th century. SomeA’yan would use there local developing ties with Euro to further strengthen themselves. Even the strongest rulers were able to still keep their positions. Instabul was still able to control over the land. -There was a boost of power in Syria and Hijaz because of the pilgrimage to Mecca -Even though the military of the Ottoman empire was not once like their were they were declin- ing but they were still able to have some power by using soft power and localizing themselves in the region. -The Ottoman would asign the land that they won to the soldiers and they look over it under the rule of Instabul. This system did not work because Instabul needed the money and this was no longer useful. -Militia formation was more important ie. the Janissary and they needed to be paid so they used the system of tax farming (certain tax that is set on an certain activity or region) they sell the tax- es to a group of people and that group of people had to come up with that tax amount. Tax farms can be passed down generations as long as the tax farmer honors the farm. You were able to buy your way into the Ottoman ruling class, as well as buying tax farms this created a aristocracy. Every year the tax farms would be auction off but then they changed it you can buy it for life and pass it down to your heirs. This process become an evolution for personal property and endow- ments. The revenues from the properties can be donated for charity. APius official would dictate that the money from the property would be donate for a new school or a mosque. They would build shops that would support the Mosque. Muslims, Christians and Jewish all had waqf’s to support the endowments.- -There was also family endowments, these were waqf’s formed by families to pass down, to one generation to another and this was an established way for theA’yans and for their families. Life time tax farms led to mobilize the militia and to stabilized theA’yan families. Different kind of A’yan’families. -In Bagdad and Cairo you had Mamuks who were similar toA’yan’s and in other areas who had the Janissary that were similar as well. I. The Changing Power in the Fertile Crescent Mosul, Damascus and Aleppo in the 18th Century The Jalili family of governors administered Mosul, located along the Tigris River, from 1726 to 1834. Damascus, set in a verdant oasis on the edge of the Syrian Desert, became associated with the ‘Azm family of governors for many of the years between 1725 and 1808.Aleppo (below left), in the fertile plains of northern Syria west of the Euphrates River, was contested between factions of Janissaries and Ashraf (i.e., recognized descendants of the Prophet) in the 18th centu- ry. Aleppo’s opulent merchants’houses symbolized the city’s wealth and its role as a crossroads of international trade. • Mosul - Family was the a rich family who found waqf’s and endowments in this region. The man converts to Islam and he is able to get a tax farm. To show that you and your family have arrived you build a Mosque meaning that you have come. This project shift the land in this region. This family was able to be part of theArtisan and they came to the notice of the government. These people bought there way to elite and were the Pashas on this region and were part of parliament and beat out an invading military. Once they got into office their current buildings expanded and they became richer. They also loaned out money to merchants, other governors. They invested into public properties out of their private holdings. They would put money back into the system and continuing the money to flow in and out. Damascus • - Family fulfilled the empiral mission. They bought these under control. They secured the route to Mecca. People revisited their ties to the land. They came from a family of Janis- saries. They are local Ottomans. Had influence allies in the Instabul, though reps. But to maintain there position they could not only pay people and build things they also had to play politics and protect the Mecca route pilgrimage. The region where this family come from in Tripoli came to Dasmuacks was no longer part of Tripoli. Cloth, jewelry sales grew in this region because of the new trade routes. - Leading members of this family became very rich. • Janissaries and Ashraf in Aleppo -No one local family or dynasty ruled over this region. TheAshraf were a family who were de- scendants of the prophet Muhammad. They were a political fashion, and they came in the form of Janissaires. This region was a wealthy place and a lot of things to fight over.Amajor city in a metropolitan area most people that lived her where Muslims, Christians and Jews. Principle cen- ter for Ottoman trade with Europe. The local intermediate who looked over the international trade were Christians. Because of this link their was a spread of Roman Catholic. By the mid 18th century Catholics were a large group of people in this region. They used this as new way of trading and to form more trade alliances. New identity and to strengthen ties. The Orthodox keep their writings and their texts and cultural but they looked to the Pope. • Zahir al-‘Umar, a local strongman, established a de facto autonomous principality in the Galilee from 1746 onward. The Ottomans recognized him as their principal tax farmer till he re- belled against them in alliance with Russia. Istanbul deposed him in 1775. Zahir established his headquarters at Tiberias on the Sea of Galilee, where he built the ‘Umari mosque (in old and re- cent photos, above). His suppressor and replacement was a ruthless Mamluk officer and Ottoman loyalist named al-Jazzar (“the Butcher”).Al-Jazzar (d. 1804) was based atAcre where his mosque (left) and reconstructed walls are the port city’s most prominent surviving monuments of the Ottoman era . Umar died 1775. His family were the principle tax farmers of the small part of the Ottoman Em- pire. They were of arab tribal origins. They had regulated trade with France. In the 18th century they traded cotton. The cotton was sold directly to the French merchants who were working in Aka in Ottoman.The French merchants had to deal directly to Umar. This is how he rose to some local province. He is not nobility. Let him expanded his empire to Istanbul and donated money to him. The region of Gallie make alliances to booster his trade there. Him and the ruler of Egypt made alliances with Russia. They went to the medtarrian sea to find alliances and during this war were in alliances with Russia. The war was won by the Russians in 1774 and they turned there direction other where. The people did not look at Umar kindly and killed him and through his family out of power. In his place put in an Ottoman loyalist. Fairly typical to the local men of the mountain coasts. Struck a core with the peasants of Gallie because they protected them from pastoral nomads and the central government. His power was rooted into small towns, where as the other examples were products of the empiral Ottoman empire. -An alliance of governments was made with the central governments during this time. -These colonial families had ties with the French and the British. -How the past is constructed and reconstructed. January 17, 2012 Lecture Three: Changing of Powers in Egypt -The Ottomans secured the area of the red sea from the Portuguese and they did resed. -Egypt sent revenue taxes to the Ottoman as well as the taxes from trade in the red sea area. -Tax farmers where created because of all this trade -Egypt was a huge bread basket because they produced coffee, sugar. This was a good place to profit from -Local people were enlisted into the garason armies this is how the locals were mixed into the community. They also got mamuks from albian and other countries neigbouring this area. -Using slaves that were trade into the military arts and they would be loyal to the owners house- hold. -This was the functioning classical of the Ottoman empire. -Slaves of the Sultan were the soldiers of the army. -Military slavery flourished at the provincial level. -Slave traders who networks passed through Istanbul to Cairo had women and men with them. They would arrange marriage between them. Ottoman elites took as the Sultan’s model in Istan- bul with slavery. -Elite women had access power under the household. They were part of the economic and politi- cal worlds. They also became tax farmers. -Free mamuks would form household of their own and were gained access to the tax farmers. They would be appointed to ‘bay” and they would be the one turning the garson’s into there own network. Basically switching positions with them. They were of little practical province rather the were more of a symbol. What was happening her was separating down into NorthAfrica. -mamuks and janissary were both slaves. janissary had gun power and miltary, slaves to the Sul- tan . mamuks were slaves of any number of high ranking sultan and the did not have gun power till rather late. -The ottomans would not give full power to the mamuks. Even to the Huesdugely family who were powerful. He moved swiftly and quickly on the Ottoman stage. He wanted to create an Egyptian base that extended the red sea and into the syria lands. The power of his power was that he brought missionaries who were not slaves. The further way you get from Cairo you get into the lands of the pastoral nomads who had power over there land and he stepped on there land. He took over the banks and replace the tax farmers that were jewish and janissaries with Christian syrians and mamuks that were loyal to his family. Man syrian catholics moved to Egypt. They bought with them a different and new knowledge which pleased the mamuks. The trade between the french and egypt because of these new alliances and trade was huge in syria and egypt. Syri- ans switched to roman catholic because of the alliances of france. They had access to an all catholic church, they were able to get a printing press and other positive reasons. The orthodox church was not to pleased with these new alliances.Ali bay expelled the recently governed coun- cilor and he becomes the governor of Egypt. He also goes to join the Russians in the war during this time. He was over through by his right hand man because of his alliances with Russia. -Egypt ties were strengthen -Ali bay had people use Egypt to be the transit point in the trade. This was against the Ottoman regulations that said the red sea was to be done by Muslims. European merchants wanted to take up Ali bay agreements of the red sea but France and British did not want to upset the Sultan be- cause they did wantAustria and Germany etc to gain more land in the Ottoman area. Egypt the key of trade to the Indian ocean. In 1786 the ottoman miltary used an empiral army they sent the mamuks of ali bay into the north of egypt and to the south, the women of the men stayed in Cairo to protect the men’s shops and stuff. They did not do anything new, all they did was shack up the old orders of powers. The mamuks could not defeat Egypt against an modern army. The alliances that tied the mamuks with the elite households became straighten during the end of the families dynasty. The family did not have to care to much about public opinion because they were safe in there houses. They started many trends in this region that would be further developed. arab revolt against ottoman rule implies some sort of arab nationalist conciseness. He was not thinking of arab speaking perspective in a larger sense more of a local sense. January 19, 2012 Lecture Four: NorthAfrican Countries in the 18th Century -Continuing the theme of changing of powers -West to east and the three Ottomans regions Tonus,Apello, Tripoli -They were the subjects of the people in power in these areas. -The Dey would hold sufferance at the command of the gars choice -The governs of other towns would acknowledge the Dey, and they would sent money toAlgeris twice a year and visit it every third years. The only way the town made money was through tax revenues. The Dey would govern his region any way he wanted to. -This was not an intrusive regime -There was a relationship that people grumbled about once or twice a year. -Taxation was important -Triopoli was similar organized, the difference was the Dey was hereditary claim on the office of the Dey until the day of the Ottoman reforms. The further away you got from the coast, the more importance the relationship with the Dey and pastoral nomads. They wold have a potential talks about the trade routines that went through the Sahara where pastoral nomads were in great num- bers. The more neogitatgtion necessary -Tunic, most bureaucracy and most closely resembled the political system of Istanbul -Morocco looked to Spain and was never part of the ottoman empire.Ali wai were the family in power during this time period. The authority of the Sultan was depended if the tribal chiefs would pay taxes. It has its roots in the cities but the royal york moves from one city to another. The family has taken a form on monarchy. -The issue of slavery: domestic and military. There was a larger number of north african slaves in morocco in the family household. -The morocco sultan forces were men who were military slaves from europe and pastoral nomads -The Moroccan sultan was aspected to fund mosques, and other important buildings. The issue of education was left to other people in power. They would join the Egyptians in Cairo to go on the pilgrimage to Mecca. They were in touch with others of theArab speaking worlds. The towns of Fez and Moroccish perceived the learning of high education. They might however be called on to be more slum on acts when called on by others in the country side. They would be the spiritual Marabo’s were saintly holy men and they would pass down there leadership. They were special influential when the state or government were not there. They were involved in peoples lives and they were able to get the people to gather together. The government would keep a close eye on this group. Marabo’s in Alegeris kept there distance away from the sultans unlike the Marabo’s from Morocco. When there was a protest the government would look to the Marabo’s.Amarabo movement in Algeria led a guerilla movement against the French. -Through out NorthAfrica taxation was an important to the country, same with the merchant trade. The people were successful in this area. From 1815 on ward sea board trade was led by Euro, who were led by the government to stop NorthAfrican private trade. The Sea captains were the ones who would say which Dey was there.The north african regions have been indepen- dent and never under Ottoman control. There government was structured by tribal claims. This worked if they were to produce goods for a small group. Forces in Euro were ready to change the world because of the industrial revolution and capitalism emerging. -Shifting of the places of power between the Ottoman empire as a whole and the Europe Western world -Commercial revolution of trade with Euro Christians. Large parts of Euro was under Ottoman rule. It increased trade, Christians were more interested in the Middle East goods. France was a dominated until the Napelonic wars and once they ended, Euro influence separated again in the Middle east. Everyone can feel things change because steam ships (increase regular time)/ trains were build to make trade easier and they are connected better. Euro need raw materials for the In- dustries and food for the people and cotton for england textile factories. This created a relation- ship with the Euro economy. This increased the economy in the ottoman empire as well because goods were flowing back and forth. The most change was import and export merchants who saw there success boom. Aclass of local middle merchants appeared around the trade a silk. The old artisans were hurt by this change in the area, they found there production cut because the prod- ucts can be made faster and cheaper. They also lost there upper hand in the area because people wanted the goods and materials manufactured from Euro because they were cheaper than the lo- cal goods. Manufacturing in most arab regions grew during the 19th century, but it was women and children who worked in the factories not the men who worked in the gils. The men who worked the the gils lost there status. Men went to go work in the crash crop fields. Old social structures were being changed into the more modern day way. The households would also shift their roles who would work who would farm. They are linked to the new rural economy. -Geographically coastal regions grew because of this. Internal towns had been the principle cen- turies of economy but now that changed to coastal regions. The coastal regions expanded beyond there old lines. Now they are competing unlike they had before. Euro reps used this influence to further there citizens and the people in this region. Countries of Euro would patronized areas of the Ottoman era and make them look towards the Euro states as their patrionizates. -In 1839 the British held power over Ottin it was a major steam ship route and rely point. -In the Persian gulf a British influence was big because of trade. They had signed treaties with Britain to led them deal with their foreign affairs. -In 1830 a French army landed on Algeria and trade dispute had happened years before dealing with the French and the Deys. Merchants of Marce a town in France wanted to re-continue the trade with the town ofAlgeria. They fought the Dey government and defeated them and they continued into the internal of Algeria and there presence grew as they went further in. -Qadiriyya was a political man and acknowledged the French and if he signed agreements with the French they would stay on the coast and not further come into the in land. But he then real- ized that would not happened. For 10 years he let a tribal rally against the French. This war was a holy struggle. After 10 years in 1847 they were defeated by the French. The French campaigned against the army and destroyed everything in then area, everyone who supported the social views of Qadiriyya. In other places Euro influence was done in a less bloody way. The way it happened peacefully was done be loaning money to these middle east countries. This would led to bank- ruptcies.Once the middle east countries received these loans were less than what they wanted and you still have to pay the full price back. They would use money to pay salaries and armies and this did not give money back. Once a government was in debit they had to make the money, they would get a loan to help pay back a loan. Governments with debit would get loans from one country to another to be able to pay their loans. When bankruptcy happened Euro creditors would come in and control the budgets of the countries and assume the responsible for these countries. By the turn of the century euro creditors were involved in the finances of the country and this led the country to turn to there militaries. This leads to the Middle East becoming depen- dent on foreign loans and losing sovereignty over finances. -In 1881 France occupied Tunic because the British said they could. France wanted it before Italy but there were money Italians than French.They wanted to deal with the FrenchAlgeria boarder issue. -In 1882 Britain invades Egypt and takes over there finances -In 1904 Morocco is partionated between France and Spain. -The map by world war one is a lot different than 100 years before and the only place that kept its independent was the Ottomans. To avoid getting controlled over by French and British the Ot- toman Empire sided with Germany, they were a semi colonial state because of the rivalry of Euro cardholders. The Ottoman empire knew how to get away from the Euro control and did not get involved in there finances. These investments lead to the blue print of getting control of the Ot- toman empire after world war one. The pattern of pre war investments says which province which Euro country will get. -Anew imperial structure that forms the ways of nationalism that effects the arab states. Ottoman Egypt chronological milestones 1517 — Ottomans conquer Egypt from Mamluk dynastic rulers 17th century — Ottoman garrison commanders import Mamluk slave soldiers 1711 — Mamluk beys in Cairo revolt against commander of local Janissaries, and take over the Janissary garrison ca. 1750 — foremost Mamluk becomes known as Shaykh al-Balad, and serves as acting gov- ernor of Egypt when no formally appointed Ottoman governor is present 1760–98 — members of Qazdaghli household monopolize the office of Shaykh al-Balad 1760–72 — the Qazdaghli Mamluk ‘Ali Bey al-Kabir (“the Great”) is Shaykh al-Balad. Expels Ottoman governor in 1769, and joins Russian war against Ottomans in 1770 1772–75 — ‘Ali Bey is overthrown by his Qazdaghli rival Muhammad BeyAbu al-Dhahab. Abu al-Dhahab affirms loyalty to Istanbul while entrenching Qazdaghli rule in Egypt and liberal- ly tossing coins around in the streets of Cairo, hence his moniker “Goldfather” (not a James Bond villain) 1786 — short-lived Ottoman attempt to impose central control on Egypt and the Qazdaghlis via an imperial armed expedition 1798 — Napoleon Bonaparte’s invasion and the French occupation of Egypt (to 1801) bring an end to Qazdaghli Mamluk rule, opening up a new phase in Egypt’s political history Elite Households in 18th-Century Ottoman Egypt Egyptian elites included households of slave soldiers (Mamluks, pictured at right) who consoli- dated their political power in 1711 at the expense of Ottoman garrison commanders. Elite house- holds formed the political and economic nerve centers of 18th-century Cairo, where they built palatial mansions (below) that served both public and private functions. Reception rooms for men (below left) and women (below right) were places where elites formed alliances, hatched plots and stratagems, discussed and managed economic affairs, and made marriage alliances. North Africa (the Maghrib) in the 18th Century Politically from west to east: the independent sultanate (kingdom) of Morocco; the Ottoman re- gency (autonomous province) of Algiers; the Ottoman regency of Tunis; and the Ottoman regen- cy of Tripoli (the western part of the coast of modern Libya). Algiers: the principal Ottoman military commander, called the Dey, was also the recognized Ottoman governor. Acouncil ofAlgiers-based land and sea military commanders selected the Dey. He remitted an annual tribute to Istanbul. Governors of other towns, called Beys, made pay- ments to the Dey and visited Algiers once every three years. Ends with the French invasion of 1830. Tripoli: organized similarly to Algiers, but on a smaller scale. Here the office of Dey (= recog- nized Ottoman governor) became hereditary in Qaramanli familiy from 1711–1835. Reign of the Deys ends with an Ottoman invasion in 1835. Tunis: the most elaborate and Ottoman-like of the Regency governments. Governed by a heredi- tary dynasty of Beys (= recognized Ottoman governors) belonging to the Husaynid family from 1705 onward. The Husaynids integrated into Tunisian society and established a de facto indepen- dent kingdom, while retaining formal vassalage ties with Istanbul. (The Husaynids will lose their independence in the 19th century, but they retain a ceremonial role till 1956.) Morocco: ruled from Fez by sultans belonging to the ‘Alawi dynasty of ashraf (descendants of the family of Prophet Muhammad) from 1631 onward. Descendants of the ‘Alawis rule mod- ern Morocco today as kings. Sufism and Seafaring in Ottoman North Africa The spiritual, material, and educational needs of NorthAfricans were attended by Sufi marabouts in their zawiyas or “lodges.” Rural lodges typically were simple, as in the present-day Tunisian example below. Urban lodges could be simple or ornate, depending on a marabout’s prestige and/or the wealth of his mystical order.Aproportion of revenue for the dey ofAlgiers came from the takings of piracy or privateering, an activity that was organized on both the Muslim and Christian sides of the Mediterranean by state- sanctioned naval commanders or sea captains. The so-called “Barbary pirates” of Muslim NorthAfrica used fast and light ships like the one pictured here (left). The head of the corporation of sea captains inAlgiers lived in a palatial residence, including this one built in the 16th century (right). January 24, 2012 Lecture Five: Imperialism and Reform Financial dependency: reform and bankruptcies in Egypt, Ottoman Empire, Tunisia -The effort of reform by the elites in theArab lands -Dealing with the forces of European Imperialism -Governments in Arab lands principally Egypt, Ottoman and Tornisa, to modern reform their government, economy, and army. Expanded relationship with European countries. The delop- ment of sources from other countries. These countries became more tied to Europe during this time of modern reform. -Egypt was the site of the earliest reform because of the evasion from France, and later on by the British and Ottoman. The Mamuks tried to reform them but it didn’t work. Muhammad ‘Ali Pasha and the Egyptian Army Muhammad ‘Ali Pasha emerged on the scene in a new era when the Ottoman world lived in the shadow of European Great Power rivalries. He was image-conscious and sat for foreign portrait painters on more than one occasion. EthnicallyAlbanian, he was a product of the Ottoman mili- tary culture with a highly developed sense of command and authority. He combined his political skills with his openness to French and British military and technological innovations to build the Middle East’s first conscript army . The Egyptian army was Muhammad ‘Ali’s vehicle for re- gional hegemony, and the army’s needs were the impetus behind his far-reaching (and ruthlessly implemented) economic and administrative reforms. Though by 1841 Muhammad ‘Ali had been forced to limit his territorial ambitions to Egypt and the Sudan, he had obtained recognition of his family as hereditary governors of Egypt, and he had concentrated the country’s wealth in his family’s hands and in those of the Turco- Circassian elite who were his administrative and mili- tary cadres. Egyptian peasants paid for his policies with both their labor and their lives. • Muhammad Ali Pasha was fromAlbania and wanted the Sultan to acknowledge him as governor. He reorganized Egypt and wanted to rework the reform. By 1818 got rid of all the tax farms and he pensioned off the tax farmers and got rid of the Wafd endowments. He tied his grip on the tax farmers, relied on the village shaks, elites etc. -The export of goods was a way to help boost the economy. He would export gain to the British during the Napoleon wars and he believed the export of agricultural goods had to deal with state monopolies. -The most important symbol of his profit making agricultural was cotton to Egypt. He introduced a new type of cotton because they could sell it for a high price and people would buy it because it was in great use for textile mills. -The Nile river re-enriches the soil, and there was not really a summer agricultural period -He was trying to see Egypt as a modern economy ie. cotton, water, sugar etc -He was attempting to centralize farming. -Agriculture was now a full year job. -The government was able to mobilize thousands of people to farm these crops -Mahmudiyya 1817-1819 was the construction of a canal. Linking the Nile river toAlexandria and thousand of people died during this job. Men were conscripted to do these jobs. Taking peo- ple far out from their home region to do these projects. -In the early years he relied on Albanian missionaries and personal mamuks were his army. He forced Sudanese into his military but they all died. Later he conscripted peasant men in Egypt (1820s). -Attempted to build a modern army based on a previous Ottoman army. Hired French advisers and sent boys to France to learn the ways of the French army. He wanted to build a core a body of men who were kept away from society who would have connections with the countries econo- my. There were repeated role calls and the army was very strict. Your life was not your own, you always had to be present for the army and role calls. Men who were conscripted can be compared to a death sentence. Many thousands fled or hide to get away from conscription.All men to carry government papers to say you are not avoiding conscription. The state wants to know who you are, where you are etc modern day thing.Most of their lives men were vulnerable for conscrip- tion. -In the 1830s, villages would be gone because with most people in the army there was no one to keep things going. -Now their was a French doctor looking after the men in the army. -The State was able to strip down men like we are done to day at airports. -He did not except his army to live off the land -The government build factories (goods, food, uniforms) for the men in the army. -Artisans and peasants were forced to work in these factories. -Amodern state in Egypt is new and interventness and is not welcomed by the state that wel- comes it. -Amodern style army needed a military leader therefore schools/colleges were opened to train men for the army. -He sent his army to Ottoman Greece because the Sultan wanted him to because there were re- volts there. Ibrahim was the son of Muhammad pasha takes care Egypt well his father goes to Greece. -In 1831 his armies invaded Palestine, Syria, he was demanding that the Ottoman empire give back the fleeing men of the army and they would not so that is why he invaded those to coun- tries. -His conscription went on into Palestine and Syria but they did not like it either. -He was able to incorporate both countries with Egypt in state affairs for about 9 years. -In 1849 he wanted hereditary rule for his family -The revenues of Egypt by the late 1830s were suffering and because of this in 1840 he had to withdraw from Palestine and Syria. -He formed a free trade treaty with Britain -His family got to be hereditary in Egypt even though the Sultan was at the top -His family and the Pasha’s grew cotton on their estates which made money -His factories were starting to fail because they were expensive also because he wanted to cen- tralize economy, theft in the factories and free trade makes things cheaper because they can trade with Europe. -Afinal legacy for him is parting the way for a middle class and educating the people. They wanted to create a group of servants close to the family. -He was the founder of modern Egypt. He spoke no arab. He was conscious of his public image. -The modern world of Europe was making the old world of the middle east unadpatable and they could not work in this modern world. European imperial expansion inArab lands, 1798–1914: major dates and events •1798–1801 — French occupation of Egypt •1815 — end of Napoleonic wars, resumption of large-scale trans- Mediterranean trade •1830 — France invades Algeria; sustained organized resistance ends in 1847 with surrender of ‘Abd al-Qadir al-Jaza’iri;Algeria is governed as French territory till 1962 •Free trade treaties: Ottoman Empire (1838), Egypt (1841), Morocco (1856) •1839 — Britain occupies Yemeni port of Aden, establishing colonial rule there till 1967 •1853 — Britain finalizes protectorates over Trucial States (Persian Gulf) and Oman (Indian Ocean), arrangements that endure till 1971 •1869 — French-financed Suez Canal opens in Egypt •1875 — Britain gains major financial stake in Suez Canal (till 1956) •Bankruptcies: Tunisia (1869), Egypt (1875), Ottoman Empire (1876). Governments of Euro- pean creditors take control of key revenues and expenditures •1881 — France seizes Tunisia, governs there till 1956 •1882 — Britain invades Egypt, plays political and military role there till 1956 •1899 — Britain establishes protectorate over Kuwait till 1961 •1904 — Morocco partitioned between France and Spain till 1956 •1911 — Italy invades Ottoman Libya; Italian rule ends in 1943 Changing World of Work in the 19th- Century Arab World The integration ofArab lands into wider regional and international markets created new opportu- nities, pressures, and patterns for working people.Agricultural production grew in response to market demands and government encouragement, whilst profits accrued mostly to landowners and grain or cotton merchants. Local and European entrepreneurs invested in cottage industries like silk- spinning marked by a gendered division of labor that saw unmarried young women be- come early “factory girls.”Although production techniques and tools appeared “traditional,” such farming, manufacturing, and construction activities now occurred in a modern context of globalizing economies and assertive, modern states. Expansion of European Empires in Arab Lands to 1914 All of North Africa from Morocco to Egypt succumbed to European military occupation by 1914. Similarly, the circumference of theArabian Peninsula came under direct or indirect British rule, fromAden in the southwest of Arabia to Kuwait in the northeast. The sovereign Ottoman Empire continued to govern the Fertile Crescent lands of Greater Syria and Iraq, as well as west- ern Arabia (the Hijaz) and lands south of Kuwait (al-Hasa). The finances of the Ottoman Empire were overseen and regulated by a board of European creditors under the rubric of the Ottoman Public DebtAdministration (1881). Parts of the sovereign Ottoman Empire were divided informally into European spheres of economic influence:Anatolia to Germany (the “Berlin to Baghdad railway”); Syria and Lebanon to France (ports and railways); Iraq to Britain (steamship companies in the Tigris and Euphrates rivers); and Palestine (prestigious holy places) and northern Iraq (oil) to all and sundry. The Ottoman authorities strug- gled to retain political authority in their remaining lands even as economic dependency eroded their sovereignty. January 26, 2012 Lecture Six: The change of reform in the Fertile Crescent and Syria -Bureaucrats in the late 19th century was to reform the affairs in the ottoman empire to the new modern ways of Europe and to make sure the Europeans do not get involved in their affairs. -By the 1820s, the Ottoman Sultan looked at Egypt as a model for building a new army. -With these new army the Ottoman Empire was able to get control over old provinces -3 imperial decreases in 1829, 1839, 1856 to reframe the state to its male subject. Women were represented by their men. In declaring this they shared ideas with European elites who are find- ing a new bases of legitimacy to say they are the legit sovereign of these states. The true bedrock of the state were the Muslims. -To find a new theory of government was to have a legit male state.Amultiple national union of Ottoman subjects and they could only act in certain limits. The Euros wanted to expand their land in Ottoman land and if there were any conflicts they would go to consult courts. -Christian elites would form relationships with the Christians of Euro. -Faced with these conditions began to view the Muslim of the population as the actual bedrock versus the Christians and Jews -Syria had similarities to the Egyptian regime becauseAli Pasha’s son was governing there nine years before. -Most of the population was accustomed to personal fire arms -The Egyptian army was pushed out of Syria in 1841 and then they came back because there government had weakened the old structures. The reforms had an advantage in Syria versus the old way. Council in the towns to formalize the councils voices and in which reps would have a formal place in the city / region. Some people were skeptical of the council because they did not allow the Wafd reform. Basically these people only used their positions to better them on the world stage. -Aleppo in 1850 there were distributes that happened, and they limited Euro reform. Christian communities were particular parts of violence. The urban christians undermining a new order, and the men in the council were noted in forcing this violence. Such violence of anti-christian was new to middle eastern towns, and it came as a shock. This was not a feature of Ottoman rule. -The organizers of 1850 riots, created dangerous pretext for Euro states to become in involved in the middle east. The central authorities crushed these rioters and punished them. -Early 20th century there was a bargain between the Iamas and the Tasmat said yes to bureaucra- cy and the Iamas would let go their autonomy for the perks in office. Now more and more the power of success came from the secular power and older families adapted to the modern ways but the ones who did not would get lower and lower in there position and would be the core of an anti-ottoman tendency. -If there is going to be a Caliph he has to be anArab not a Turk -Nobles and elites in Syria and Palestine found themselves favoured about the fall of the ottoman Empire. -They build schools in Syria to train young men so they can compete for a position in the mili- tary and provincial schools -Class of bureaucrat land owners were able to suvior after the fall of the Ottoman empire - 1850s - 1860s created a military that was able to suppress groups and military conquest with more and more of the low lands were taken from the pastoral nomads. The government told the mountain shaks it was in there best interest to come join in there urban cities and into the mili- tary. The prairie lands / low lands that had not been cultivated before are now being cultivated. There was a private land ownership but in the absent low lands are the lands that large estates that were formed in. In the high lands around the cities the rule stayed the same ie the elites had the power. The Ottoman past was influence to the future. - In Palestine the Jews settlement went to the lower lands whereas theArabs stayed in the moun- tains. - The only part of geographic Syria that the Ottoman government needed authority was the re- gion Mt. Lebanon. In 1860 there was a fight between the Jews and Christians and the French had to get involved. After the intervention Mt. Lebanon had their own central government. -Fertile Crescent the country side was settled with settled and non settled civilizations. The invention of the telegraph but Istanbul on the map with communicating with this region. The in- creasing of trade economy, British steam ships were the ways in connecting Iraq to this modern economy. -Transition of the old ways into new ones. -Midhat Pasha (1869- 71) = grant land to tribal shaks to be cultivate
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