Tuesday, January 10, 2012
Lecture One: Ottomans and Provincial Notables
Arab provinces in the Ottoman Empire: changing balance of power in the 18th century.
• Pre Modern Society
- The land mass from Morocco in the West to Iraq andArabia to the East
- It is an linguistic area. Amajority of people that speakArabic.
- Linguistic and national identity.
- Religious, regional or distinct are the ways the people of these lands would identity themselves.
- Low or seasonal rain fall makes important for the people
- The intersection of three continents created a good economy in the modern era and great trad-
- Merchants and scholars could feel themselves at home because of the high culture of Islam and
education. Marked by the classical arab culture and language. This is all shown in all the differ-
ent regions of the middle east that steam out from other languages. In the modern era people
looked at the classic period of high cultural as maintained and an attempt to keep an arab identi-
ty. Only upper class which was a small group were able to be a part of this high culture. There
was a Rustic religious belief among the poorer and more majority group of people.
• Aline we can draw from pre modern to modern
-For many decades the year 1798 is the modern era
-That is the year Napoleon left France
-Every where in Europe they also agree with this date
-Napoleon invaded Egypt and it helped the country and after his defeat the British would go into
-The Ottoman empire held land up to the black sea and most of theArab world and into the fer-
tile crescents and into North Africa and the Hidjaz
-The empire powers took over these areas because of provincial ruling elites.
-To move outside the Ottoman empire to cutting ties with Europe.
-Amajority ofArabs lived in the shadow of the Ottoman empire for 400 years, in the 19th centu-
ry down played the Ottoman Empire heritage. Mid 20th century historians blamed the Ottomans
for what happened but now in this century they make the connection between the two groups and
what the relationships between the Ottomans and theArabs that affected the area.
-The Pre modern Ottoman state: did not apply Turkish
=Ottoman status is a high status to receive. You needed to be muslim to be ottoman
=Ottoman society was rooted in hierarchy
=Ottoman sultans not only used there wealth for themselves but for schools, canals, towns and
=Rural people were the outside looking in
=Ottoman rule in theArab provinces was ruled by two groups : Sultan = Grand Vizier = Pashas (the military members were not muslims) they become connect
Sultan= Shaykh al - islam = Qadis (religious islamic group) Ulama (religious clerks to the kings)
the Ottomans bureracry the Ulama and they were in charge in the higher up schools and special-
ist in Islamic law. The working language was arab if they were elite Ulama. There were also low-
er ranking ones from promising families (provincial Ulama).
-The Spanish Monarchy was still in the pre modern world
-They had expelled the muslims and jews out of Spain
-The Syria lands and Egypt provided important revenues
-The holy lands helped the Ottomans clam and govern the lands of Mecca and Medina
-The arab provinces were not high up but they were still important
-Different patterns of governed developed in the middle east
-Control in the step lands were harder because of the terrains and they were less important be-
cause they did not created a lot of revenue. Lords and Shakes were people named by the govern-
ment to govern in the regions and if they did not obey they would have harsh consequences.
-Ottoman governs of different lords would support their own and mix into the politics
• Egypt and the Western Hijaz
-Egypt was exporting coffee and spices to the markets of the east
-Supplied other regions with wheat
-Cairo would be one of the jumping off points of the pilgrimage to Mecca and Medina.
-By the 1700s the troops were no longer being sent to Egypt but part of their society.
-Mamluk slave soldiers held positions in the provincial government and the control of taxation
-The holy land of the Hijaz was linked to Egypt because of the holy cities.
-The Ottomans got control of the holy cities once a year during the time of the pilgrimage.
-In 1705 a local dynasty in Tunis called Hussaynids were created to control the taxable surplus
-Four recognizable school of sunni law in these regions. One in the Ottoman empire called
Hanafi and another one called Maliki.
-In Algiers the corresponding office to the Tunis is the Dey from 1710 automatically became the
governors. This was an effected government by hierarchy.Algiers was build up as an Ottoman
-Tripoli resembled Algiers but on a smaller scale. In 1711 the Qaramanli family were the rulings
dynasty. They were also a Dey grouping.
- North Africa was seen as a frontier.
Thursday, January 12, 2012
Lecture Two: Continuation
-The GreatArab cities were the largest in the area (map below)
-If you look at detail studies of the old cities you notice a topical and physical extensions of these
cities during the Ottoman period
-Regulated Ottoman traded with friendly Christian European states. This growth led to Christians
in the Ottoman areas. They began to compete with old Jewish families for trading. The wealthiest families were the merchants, money leaders and bankers (elite class).These Christian and Jews
were looked at important to the economy and humble people that were looked at fondly. They
would trade with the Ottoman Muslims and formed relationships with them as well. They would
inter marriage with one another and becomeArabized because if the inter mixing.
-The most important trade was internal Ottoman trade, not the trade with Europe.Also another
important trade was with the Indian Ocean which was controlled by Muslims. New trade good
was coffee (new thing, big demand). There were also the pilmimagae to Mecca and that was an-
other trade because people from all over the Medterrrian would come to the holy city and would
trade goods along the way.
-Jewish merchants in the Red sea trade declined when the Ottomans rose in trade affairs but the
Jewish role in the Red Sea trade continued with the Muslims and theArabs.
-Not many families continued the merchant work after generations, they focused more on reli-
-Ashraf: people who were recognized as descendants from the prophet.
-Schools based on the shira laws were created. The Ulama were the ones teaching in these
-Local Ottomans and the people in that area had mixed and the status of the language ofArab
was enforced and religious education to study in Instabul.
-The Ottomans patronized the Sunni Muslim in there daily activities. The Ulama’s come up with
poems and pros that related to the time period.
• Concept of the changing balance of power
I. Ottoman: where the elites and the people saw the power in themselves and the relationship
-A’yan: the people of the ruling groups: The provincial Ottomans, the big international Mer-
chants, The High Ranking Ulama were all frequently linked to business and marriage.
-The shifting power led to taking out the lands from Instabul. We can see the beginning on the
18th century. SomeA’yan would use there local developing ties with Euro to further strengthen
themselves. Even the strongest rulers were able to still keep their positions. Instabul was still
able to control over the land.
-There was a boost of power in Syria and Hijaz because of the pilgrimage to Mecca
-Even though the military of the Ottoman empire was not once like their were they were declin-
ing but they were still able to have some power by using soft power and localizing themselves in
-The Ottoman would asign the land that they won to the soldiers and they look over it under the
rule of Instabul. This system did not work because Instabul needed the money and this was no
-Militia formation was more important ie. the Janissary and they needed to be paid so they used
the system of tax farming (certain tax that is set on an certain activity or region) they sell the tax-
es to a group of people and that group of people had to come up with that tax amount. Tax farms
can be passed down generations as long as the tax farmer honors the farm. You were able to buy
your way into the Ottoman ruling class, as well as buying tax farms this created a aristocracy.
Every year the tax farms would be auction off but then they changed it you can buy it for life and
pass it down to your heirs. This process become an evolution for personal property and endow-
ments. The revenues from the properties can be donated for charity. APius official would dictate
that the money from the property would be donate for a new school or a mosque. They would build shops that would support the Mosque. Muslims, Christians and Jewish all had waqf’s to
support the endowments.-
-There was also family endowments, these were waqf’s formed by families to pass down, to one
generation to another and this was an established way for theA’yans and for their families. Life
time tax farms led to mobilize the militia and to stabilized theA’yan families. Different kind of
-In Bagdad and Cairo you had Mamuks who were similar toA’yan’s and in other areas who had
the Janissary that were similar as well.
I. The Changing Power in the Fertile Crescent
Mosul, Damascus and Aleppo in the 18th Century
The Jalili family of governors administered Mosul, located along the Tigris River, from 1726 to
1834. Damascus, set in a verdant oasis on the edge of the Syrian Desert, became associated with
the ‘Azm family of governors for many of the years between 1725 and 1808.Aleppo (below
left), in the fertile plains of northern Syria west of the Euphrates River, was contested between
factions of Janissaries and Ashraf (i.e., recognized descendants of the Prophet) in the 18th centu-
ry. Aleppo’s opulent merchants’houses symbolized the city’s wealth and its role as a crossroads
- Family was the a rich family who found waqf’s and endowments in this region. The man
converts to Islam and he is able to get a tax farm. To show that you and your family have arrived
you build a Mosque meaning that you have come. This project shift the land in this region. This
family was able to be part of theArtisan and they came to the notice of the government. These
people bought there way to elite and were the Pashas on this region and were part of parliament
and beat out an invading military. Once they got into office their current buildings expanded and
they became richer. They also loaned out money to merchants, other governors. They invested
into public properties out of their private holdings. They would put money back into the system
and continuing the money to flow in and out.
- Family fulfilled the empiral mission. They bought these under control. They secured
the route to Mecca. People revisited their ties to the land. They came from a family of Janis-
saries. They are local Ottomans. Had influence allies in the Instabul, though reps. But to maintain
there position they could not only pay people and build things they also had to play politics and
protect the Mecca route pilgrimage. The region where this family come from in Tripoli came to
Dasmuacks was no longer part of Tripoli. Cloth, jewelry sales grew in this region because of the
new trade routes.
- Leading members of this family became very rich.
• Janissaries and Ashraf in Aleppo
-No one local family or dynasty ruled over this region. TheAshraf were a family who were de-
scendants of the prophet Muhammad. They were a political fashion, and they came in the form
of Janissaires. This region was a wealthy place and a lot of things to fight over.Amajor city in a
metropolitan area most people that lived her where Muslims, Christians and Jews. Principle cen- ter for Ottoman trade with Europe. The local intermediate who looked over the international
trade were Christians. Because of this link their was a spread of Roman Catholic. By the mid
18th century Catholics were a large group of people in this region. They used this as new way of
trading and to form more trade alliances. New identity and to strengthen ties. The Orthodox keep
their writings and their texts and cultural but they looked to the Pope.
• Zahir al-‘Umar, a local strongman, established a de facto autonomous principality in the
Galilee from 1746 onward. The Ottomans recognized him as their principal tax farmer till he re-
belled against them in alliance with Russia. Istanbul deposed him in 1775. Zahir established his
headquarters at Tiberias on the Sea of Galilee, where he built the ‘Umari mosque (in old and re-
cent photos, above). His suppressor and replacement was a ruthless Mamluk officer and Ottoman
loyalist named al-Jazzar (“the Butcher”).Al-Jazzar (d. 1804) was based atAcre where his
mosque (left) and reconstructed walls are the port city’s most prominent surviving monuments of
the Ottoman era .
Umar died 1775. His family were the principle tax farmers of the small part of the Ottoman Em-
pire. They were of arab tribal origins. They had regulated trade with France. In the 18th century
they traded cotton. The cotton was sold directly to the French merchants who were working in
Aka in Ottoman.The French merchants had to deal directly to Umar. This is how he rose to some
local province. He is not nobility. Let him expanded his empire to Istanbul and donated money to
him. The region of Gallie make alliances to booster his trade there. Him and the ruler of Egypt
made alliances with Russia. They went to the medtarrian sea to find alliances and during this
war were in alliances with Russia. The war was won by the Russians in 1774 and they turned
there direction other where. The people did not look at Umar kindly and killed him and through
his family out of power. In his place put in an Ottoman loyalist. Fairly typical to the local men of
the mountain coasts. Struck a core with the peasants of Gallie because they protected them from
pastoral nomads and the central government. His power was rooted into small towns, where as
the other examples were products of the empiral Ottoman empire.
-An alliance of governments was made with the central governments during this time.
-These colonial families had ties with the French and the British.
-How the past is constructed and reconstructed.
January 17, 2012
Lecture Three: Changing of Powers in Egypt
-The Ottomans secured the area of the red sea from the Portuguese and they did resed.
-Egypt sent revenue taxes to the Ottoman as well as the taxes from trade in the red sea area.
-Tax farmers where created because of all this trade
-Egypt was a huge bread basket because they produced coffee, sugar. This was a good place to
-Local people were enlisted into the garason armies this is how the locals were mixed into the
community. They also got mamuks from albian and other countries neigbouring this area.
-Using slaves that were trade into the military arts and they would be loyal to the owners house-
-This was the functioning classical of the Ottoman empire. -Slaves of the Sultan were the soldiers of the army.
-Military slavery flourished at the provincial level.
-Slave traders who networks passed through Istanbul to Cairo had women and men with them.
They would arrange marriage between them. Ottoman elites took as the Sultan’s model in Istan-
bul with slavery.
-Elite women had access power under the household. They were part of the economic and politi-
cal worlds. They also became tax farmers.
-Free mamuks would form household of their own and were gained access to the tax farmers.
They would be appointed to ‘bay” and they would be the one turning the garson’s into there own
network. Basically switching positions with them. They were of little practical province rather
the were more of a symbol. What was happening her was separating down into NorthAfrica.
-mamuks and janissary were both slaves. janissary had gun power and miltary, slaves to the Sul-
tan . mamuks were slaves of any number of high ranking sultan and the did not have gun power
till rather late.
-The ottomans would not give full power to the mamuks. Even to the Huesdugely family who
were powerful. He moved swiftly and quickly on the Ottoman stage. He wanted to create an
Egyptian base that extended the red sea and into the syria lands. The power of his power was that
he brought missionaries who were not slaves. The further way you get from Cairo you get into
the lands of the pastoral nomads who had power over there land and he stepped on there land. He
took over the banks and replace the tax farmers that were jewish and janissaries with Christian
syrians and mamuks that were loyal to his family. Man syrian catholics moved to Egypt. They
bought with them a different and new knowledge which pleased the mamuks. The trade between
the french and egypt because of these new alliances and trade was huge in syria and egypt. Syri-
ans switched to roman catholic because of the alliances of france. They had access to an all
catholic church, they were able to get a printing press and other positive reasons. The orthodox
church was not to pleased with these new alliances.Ali bay expelled the recently governed coun-
cilor and he becomes the governor of Egypt. He also goes to join the Russians in the war during
this time. He was over through by his right hand man because of his alliances with Russia.
-Egypt ties were strengthen
-Ali bay had people use Egypt to be the transit point in the trade. This was against the Ottoman
regulations that said the red sea was to be done by Muslims. European merchants wanted to take
up Ali bay agreements of the red sea but France and British did not want to upset the Sultan be-
cause they did wantAustria and Germany etc to gain more land in the Ottoman area. Egypt the
key of trade to the Indian ocean. In 1786 the ottoman miltary used an empiral army they sent the
mamuks of ali bay into the north of egypt and to the south, the women of the men stayed in Cairo
to protect the men’s shops and stuff. They did not do anything new, all they did was shack up the
old orders of powers. The mamuks could not defeat Egypt against an modern army. The alliances
that tied the mamuks with the elite households became straighten during the end of the families
dynasty. The family did not have to care to much about public opinion because they were safe in
there houses. They started many trends in this region that would be further developed. arab revolt
against ottoman rule implies some sort of arab nationalist conciseness. He was not thinking of
arab speaking perspective in a larger sense more of a local sense.
January 19, 2012
Lecture Four: NorthAfrican Countries in the 18th Century -Continuing the theme of changing of powers
-West to east and the three Ottomans regions Tonus,Apello, Tripoli
-They were the subjects of the people in power in these areas.
-The Dey would hold sufferance at the command of the gars choice
-The governs of other towns would acknowledge the Dey, and they would sent money toAlgeris
twice a year and visit it every third years. The only way the town made money was through tax
revenues. The Dey would govern his region any way he wanted to.
-This was not an intrusive regime
-There was a relationship that people grumbled about once or twice a year.
-Taxation was important
-Triopoli was similar organized, the difference was the Dey was hereditary claim on the office of
the Dey until the day of the Ottoman reforms. The further away you got from the coast, the more
importance the relationship with the Dey and pastoral nomads. They wold have a potential talks
about the trade routines that went through the Sahara where pastoral nomads were in great num-
bers. The more neogitatgtion necessary
-Tunic, most bureaucracy and most closely resembled the political system of Istanbul
-Morocco looked to Spain and was never part of the ottoman empire.Ali wai were the family in
power during this time period. The authority of the Sultan was depended if the tribal chiefs
would pay taxes. It has its roots in the cities but the royal york moves from one city to another.
The family has taken a form on monarchy.
-The issue of slavery: domestic and military. There was a larger number of north african slaves in
morocco in the family household.
-The morocco sultan forces were men who were military slaves from europe and pastoral
-The Moroccan sultan was aspected to fund mosques, and other important buildings. The issue of
education was left to other people in power. They would join the Egyptians in Cairo to go on the
pilgrimage to Mecca. They were in touch with others of theArab speaking worlds. The towns of
Fez and Moroccish perceived the learning of high education. They might however be called on to
be more slum on acts when called on by others in the country side. They would be the spiritual
Marabo’s were saintly holy men and they would pass down there leadership. They were special
influential when the state or government were not there. They were involved in peoples lives and
they were able to get the people to gather together. The government would keep a close eye on
this group. Marabo’s in Alegeris kept there distance away from the sultans unlike the Marabo’s
from Morocco. When there was a protest the government would look to the Marabo’s.Amarabo
movement in Algeria led a guerilla movement against the French.
-Through out NorthAfrica taxation was an important to the country, same with the merchant
trade. The people were successful in this area. From 1815 on ward sea board trade was led by
Euro, who were led by the government to stop NorthAfrican private trade. The Sea captains
were the ones who would say which Dey was there.The north african regions have been indepen-
dent and never under Ottoman control. There government was structured by tribal claims. This
worked if they were to produce goods for a small group. Forces in Euro were ready to change the
world because of the industrial revolution and capitalism emerging.
-Shifting of the places of power between the Ottoman empire as a whole and the Europe Western
world -Commercial revolution of trade with Euro Christians. Large parts of Euro was under Ottoman
rule. It increased trade, Christians were more interested in the Middle East goods. France was a
dominated until the Napelonic wars and once they ended, Euro influence separated again in the
Middle east. Everyone can feel things change because steam ships (increase regular time)/ trains
were build to make trade easier and they are connected better. Euro need raw materials for the In-
dustries and food for the people and cotton for england textile factories. This created a relation-
ship with the Euro economy. This increased the economy in the ottoman empire as well because
goods were flowing back and forth. The most change was import and export merchants who saw
there success boom. Aclass of local middle merchants appeared around the trade a silk. The old
artisans were hurt by this change in the area, they found there production cut because the prod-
ucts can be made faster and cheaper. They also lost there upper hand in the area because people
wanted the goods and materials manufactured from Euro because they were cheaper than the lo-
cal goods. Manufacturing in most arab regions grew during the 19th century, but it was women
and children who worked in the factories not the men who worked in the gils. The men who
worked the the gils lost there status. Men went to go work in the crash crop fields. Old social
structures were being changed into the more modern day way. The households would also shift
their roles who would work who would farm. They are linked to the new rural economy.
-Geographically coastal regions grew because of this. Internal towns had been the principle cen-
turies of economy but now that changed to coastal regions. The coastal regions expanded beyond
there old lines. Now they are competing unlike they had before. Euro reps used this influence to
further there citizens and the people in this region. Countries of Euro would patronized areas of
the Ottoman era and make them look towards the Euro states as their patrionizates.
-In 1839 the British held power over Ottin it was a major steam ship route and rely point.
-In the Persian gulf a British influence was big because of trade. They had signed treaties with
Britain to led them deal with their foreign affairs.
-In 1830 a French army landed on Algeria and trade dispute had happened years before dealing
with the French and the Deys. Merchants of Marce a town in France wanted to re-continue the
trade with the town ofAlgeria. They fought the Dey government and defeated them and they
continued into the internal of Algeria and there presence grew as they went further in.
-Qadiriyya was a political man and acknowledged the French and if he signed agreements with
the French they would stay on the coast and not further come into the in land. But he then real-
ized that would not happened. For 10 years he let a tribal rally against the French. This war was a
holy struggle. After 10 years in 1847 they were defeated by the French. The French campaigned
against the army and destroyed everything in then area, everyone who supported the social views
of Qadiriyya. In other places Euro influence was done in a less bloody way. The way it happened
peacefully was done be loaning money to these middle east countries. This would led to bank-
ruptcies.Once the middle east countries received these loans were less than what they wanted and
you still have to pay the full price back. They would use money to pay salaries and armies and
this did not give money back. Once a government was in debit they had to make the money, they
would get a loan to help pay back a loan. Governments with debit would get loans from one
country to another to be able to pay their loans. When bankruptcy happened Euro creditors
would come in and control the budgets of the countries and assume the responsible for these
countries. By the turn of the century euro creditors were involved in the finances of the country
and this led the country to turn to there militaries. This leads to the Middle East becoming depen-
dent on foreign loans and losing sovereignty over finances. -In 1881 France occupied Tunic because the British said they could. France wanted it before Italy
but there were money Italians than French.They wanted to deal with the FrenchAlgeria boarder
-In 1882 Britain invades Egypt and takes over there finances
-In 1904 Morocco is partionated between France and Spain.
-The map by world war one is a lot different than 100 years before and the only place that kept
its independent was the Ottomans. To avoid getting controlled over by French and British the Ot-
toman Empire sided with Germany, they were a semi colonial state because of the rivalry of Euro
cardholders. The Ottoman empire knew how to get away from the Euro control and did not get
involved in there finances. These investments lead to the blue print of getting control of the Ot-
toman empire after world war one. The pattern of pre war investments says which province
which Euro country will get.
-Anew imperial structure that forms the ways of nationalism that effects the arab states.
Ottoman Egypt chronological milestones
1517 — Ottomans conquer Egypt from Mamluk dynastic rulers 17th century — Ottoman
garrison commanders import Mamluk slave soldiers
1711 — Mamluk beys in Cairo revolt against commander of local Janissaries, and take over the
ca. 1750 — foremost Mamluk becomes known as Shaykh al-Balad, and serves as acting gov-
ernor of Egypt when no formally appointed Ottoman governor is present
1760–98 — members of Qazdaghli household monopolize the office of Shaykh al-Balad
1760–72 — the Qazdaghli Mamluk ‘Ali Bey al-Kabir (“the Great”) is Shaykh al-Balad. Expels
Ottoman governor in 1769, and joins Russian war against Ottomans in 1770
1772–75 — ‘Ali Bey is overthrown by his Qazdaghli rival Muhammad BeyAbu al-Dhahab.
Abu al-Dhahab affirms loyalty to Istanbul while entrenching Qazdaghli rule in Egypt and liberal-
ly tossing coins around in the streets of Cairo, hence his moniker “Goldfather” (not a James
1786 — short-lived Ottoman attempt to impose central control on Egypt and the Qazdaghlis via
an imperial armed expedition
1798 — Napoleon Bonaparte’s invasion and the French occupation of Egypt (to 1801) bring an
end to Qazdaghli Mamluk rule, opening up a new phase in Egypt’s political history
Elite Households in 18th-Century Ottoman Egypt
Egyptian elites included households of slave soldiers (Mamluks, pictured at right) who consoli-
dated their political power in 1711 at the expense of Ottoman garrison commanders. Elite house-
holds formed the political and economic nerve centers of 18th-century Cairo, where they built
palatial mansions (below) that served both public and private functions. Reception rooms for men (below left) and women (below right) were places where
elites formed alliances, hatched plots and stratagems, discussed and
managed economic affairs, and made marriage alliances.
North Africa (the Maghrib) in the 18th Century
Politically from west to east: the independent sultanate (kingdom) of Morocco; the Ottoman re-
gency (autonomous province) of Algiers; the Ottoman regency of Tunis; and the Ottoman regen-
cy of Tripoli (the western part of the coast of modern Libya).
Algiers: the principal Ottoman military commander, called the Dey, was also the recognized
Ottoman governor. Acouncil ofAlgiers-based land and sea military commanders selected the
Dey. He remitted an annual tribute to Istanbul. Governors of other towns, called Beys, made pay-
ments to the Dey and visited Algiers once every three years. Ends with the French invasion of
Tripoli: organized similarly to Algiers, but on a smaller scale. Here the office of Dey (= recog-
nized Ottoman governor) became hereditary in Qaramanli familiy from 1711–1835. Reign of the
Deys ends with an Ottoman invasion in 1835.
Tunis: the most elaborate and Ottoman-like of the Regency governments. Governed by a heredi-
tary dynasty of Beys (= recognized Ottoman governors) belonging to the Husaynid family from
1705 onward. The Husaynids integrated into Tunisian society and established a de facto indepen-
dent kingdom, while retaining formal vassalage ties with Istanbul. (The Husaynids will lose their
independence in the 19th century, but they retain a ceremonial role till 1956.)
Morocco: ruled from Fez by sultans belonging to the ‘Alawi dynasty of ashraf (descendants
of the family of Prophet Muhammad) from 1631 onward. Descendants of the ‘Alawis rule mod-
ern Morocco today as kings.
Sufism and Seafaring in Ottoman North Africa
The spiritual, material, and educational needs of NorthAfricans were attended by Sufi marabouts
in their zawiyas or “lodges.” Rural lodges typically were simple, as in the present-day Tunisian
example below. Urban lodges could be simple or ornate, depending on a marabout’s prestige
and/or the wealth of his mystical order.Aproportion of revenue for the dey ofAlgiers came from
the takings of piracy or privateering, an activity that was organized on both the Muslim and
Christian sides of the Mediterranean by state- sanctioned naval commanders or sea
captains. The so-called “Barbary pirates” of Muslim NorthAfrica used fast and light ships
like the one pictured here (left). The head of the corporation of sea captains inAlgiers lived in a
palatial residence, including this one built in the 16th century (right). January 24, 2012
Lecture Five: Imperialism and Reform
Financial dependency: reform and bankruptcies in Egypt, Ottoman Empire, Tunisia
-The effort of reform by the elites in theArab lands
-Dealing with the forces of European Imperialism
-Governments in Arab lands principally Egypt, Ottoman and Tornisa, to modern reform their
government, economy, and army. Expanded relationship with European countries. The delop-
ment of sources from other countries. These countries became more tied to Europe during this
time of modern reform.
-Egypt was the site of the earliest reform because of the evasion from France, and later on by the
British and Ottoman. The Mamuks tried to reform them but it didn’t work.
Muhammad ‘Ali Pasha and the Egyptian Army
Muhammad ‘Ali Pasha emerged on the scene in a new era when the Ottoman world lived in the
shadow of European Great Power rivalries. He was image-conscious and sat for foreign portrait
painters on more than one occasion. EthnicallyAlbanian, he was a product of the Ottoman mili-
tary culture with a highly developed sense of command and authority. He combined his political
skills with his openness to French and British military and technological innovations to build the
Middle East’s first conscript army . The Egyptian army was Muhammad ‘Ali’s vehicle for re-
gional hegemony, and the army’s needs were the impetus behind his far-reaching (and ruthlessly
implemented) economic and administrative reforms. Though by 1841 Muhammad ‘Ali had been
forced to limit his territorial ambitions to Egypt and the Sudan, he had obtained recognition of
his family as hereditary governors of Egypt, and he had concentrated the country’s wealth in his
family’s hands and in those of the Turco- Circassian elite who were his administrative and mili-
tary cadres. Egyptian peasants paid for his policies with both their labor and their lives.
• Muhammad Ali Pasha was fromAlbania and wanted the Sultan to acknowledge him as
governor. He reorganized Egypt and wanted to rework the reform. By 1818 got rid of all the tax
farms and he pensioned off the tax farmers and got rid of the Wafd endowments. He tied his grip
on the tax farmers, relied on the village shaks, elites etc.
-The export of goods was a way to help boost the economy. He would export gain to the British
during the Napoleon wars and he believed the export of agricultural goods had to deal with state
-The most important symbol of his profit making agricultural was cotton to Egypt. He introduced
a new type of cotton because they could sell it for a high price and people would buy it because it
was in great use for textile mills.
-The Nile river re-enriches the soil, and there was not really a summer agricultural period
-He was trying to see Egypt as a modern economy ie. cotton, water, sugar etc
-He was attempting to centralize farming. -Agriculture was now a full year job.
-The government was able to mobilize thousands of people to farm these crops
-Mahmudiyya 1817-1819 was the construction of a canal. Linking the Nile river toAlexandria
and thousand of people died during this job. Men were conscripted to do these jobs. Taking peo-
ple far out from their home region to do these projects.
-In the early years he relied on Albanian missionaries and personal mamuks were his army. He
forced Sudanese into his military but they all died. Later he conscripted peasant men in Egypt
-Attempted to build a modern army based on a previous Ottoman army. Hired French advisers
and sent boys to France to learn the ways of the French army. He wanted to build a core a body
of men who were kept away from society who would have connections with the countries econo-
my. There were repeated role calls and the army was very strict. Your life was not your own, you
always had to be present for the army and role calls. Men who were conscripted can be compared
to a death sentence. Many thousands fled or hide to get away from conscription.All men to carry
government papers to say you are not avoiding conscription. The state wants to know who you
are, where you are etc modern day thing.Most of their lives men were vulnerable for conscrip-
-In the 1830s, villages would be gone because with most people in the army there was no one to
keep things going.
-Now their was a French doctor looking after the men in the army.
-The State was able to strip down men like we are done to day at airports.
-He did not except his army to live off the land
-The government build factories (goods, food, uniforms) for the men in the army.
-Artisans and peasants were forced to work in these factories.
-Amodern state in Egypt is new and interventness and is not welcomed by the state that wel-
-Amodern style army needed a military leader therefore schools/colleges were opened to train
men for the army.
-He sent his army to Ottoman Greece because the Sultan wanted him to because there were re-
volts there. Ibrahim was the son of Muhammad pasha takes care Egypt well his father goes to
-In 1831 his armies invaded Palestine, Syria, he was demanding that the Ottoman empire give
back the fleeing men of the army and they would not so that is why he invaded those to coun-
-His conscription went on into Palestine and Syria but they did not like it either.
-He was able to incorporate both countries with Egypt in state affairs for about 9 years.
-In 1849 he wanted hereditary rule for his family
-The revenues of Egypt by the late 1830s were suffering and because of this in 1840 he had to
withdraw from Palestine and Syria.
-He formed a free trade treaty with Britain
-His family got to be hereditary in Egypt even though the Sultan was at the top
-His family and the Pasha’s grew cotton on their estates which made money
-His factories were starting to fail because they were expensive also because he wanted to cen-
tralize economy, theft in the factories and free trade makes things cheaper because they can trade
with Europe. -Afinal legacy for him is parting the way for a middle class and educating the people. They
wanted to create a group of servants close to the family.
-He was the founder of modern Egypt. He spoke no arab. He was conscious of his public image.
-The modern world of Europe was making the old world of the middle east unadpatable and they
could not work in this modern world.
European imperial expansion inArab lands, 1798–1914: major dates and events
•1798–1801 — French occupation of Egypt
•1815 — end of Napoleonic wars, resumption of large-scale trans- Mediterranean trade
•1830 — France invades Algeria; sustained organized resistance ends in 1847 with surrender
of ‘Abd al-Qadir al-Jaza’iri;Algeria is governed as French territory till 1962
•Free trade treaties: Ottoman Empire (1838), Egypt (1841), Morocco (1856) •1839 — Britain
occupies Yemeni port of Aden, establishing colonial rule there till 1967
•1853 — Britain finalizes protectorates over Trucial States (Persian Gulf) and Oman (Indian
Ocean), arrangements that endure till 1971
•1869 — French-financed Suez Canal opens in Egypt
•1875 — Britain gains major financial stake in Suez Canal (till 1956)
•Bankruptcies: Tunisia (1869), Egypt (1875), Ottoman Empire (1876). Governments of Euro-
pean creditors take control of key revenues and expenditures
•1881 — France seizes Tunisia, governs there till 1956 •1882 — Britain invades Egypt, plays
political and military role there till 1956
•1899 — Britain establishes protectorate over Kuwait till 1961
•1904 — Morocco partitioned between France and Spain till 1956
•1911 — Italy invades Ottoman Libya; Italian rule ends in 1943
Changing World of Work in the 19th- Century Arab World
The integration ofArab lands into wider regional and international markets created new opportu-
nities, pressures, and patterns for working people.Agricultural production grew in response to
market demands and government encouragement, whilst profits accrued mostly to landowners
and grain or cotton merchants. Local and European entrepreneurs invested in cottage industries
like silk- spinning marked by a gendered division of labor that saw unmarried young women be-
come early “factory girls.”Although production techniques and tools appeared “traditional,”
such farming, manufacturing, and construction activities now occurred in a modern context of
globalizing economies and assertive, modern states. Expansion of European Empires in Arab Lands to 1914
All of North Africa from Morocco to Egypt succumbed to European military occupation by
1914. Similarly, the circumference of theArabian Peninsula came under direct or indirect British
rule, fromAden in the southwest of Arabia to Kuwait in the northeast. The sovereign Ottoman
Empire continued to govern the Fertile Crescent lands of Greater Syria and Iraq, as well as west-
ern Arabia (the Hijaz) and lands south of Kuwait (al-Hasa). The finances of the Ottoman Empire
were overseen and regulated by a board of European creditors under the rubric of the Ottoman
Public DebtAdministration (1881). Parts of the sovereign
Ottoman Empire were divided informally into European spheres of economic influence:Anatolia
to Germany (the “Berlin to Baghdad railway”); Syria and Lebanon to France (ports and
railways); Iraq to Britain (steamship companies in the Tigris and Euphrates rivers); and Palestine
(prestigious holy places) and northern Iraq (oil) to all and sundry. The Ottoman authorities strug-
gled to retain political authority in their remaining lands even as economic dependency eroded
January 26, 2012
Lecture Six: The change of reform in the Fertile Crescent and Syria
-Bureaucrats in the late 19th century was to reform the affairs in the ottoman empire to the new
modern ways of Europe and to make sure the Europeans do not get involved in their affairs.
-By the 1820s, the Ottoman Sultan looked at Egypt as a model for building a new army.
-With these new army the Ottoman Empire was able to get control over old provinces
-3 imperial decreases in 1829, 1839, 1856 to reframe the state to its male subject. Women were
represented by their men. In declaring this they shared ideas with European elites who are find-
ing a new bases of legitimacy to say they are the legit sovereign of these states. The true bedrock
of the state were the Muslims.
-To find a new theory of government was to have a legit male state.Amultiple national union of
Ottoman subjects and they could only act in certain limits. The Euros wanted to expand their
land in Ottoman land and if there were any conflicts they would go to consult courts.
-Christian elites would form relationships with the Christians of Euro.
-Faced with these conditions began to view the Muslim of the population as the actual bedrock
versus the Christians and Jews
-Syria had similarities to the Egyptian regime becauseAli Pasha’s son was governing there nine
-Most of the population was accustomed to personal fire arms
-The Egyptian army was pushed out of Syria in 1841 and then they came back because there
government had weakened the old structures. The reforms had an advantage in Syria versus the
old way. Council in the towns to formalize the councils voices and in which reps would have a
formal place in the city / region. Some people were skeptical of the council because they did not
allow the Wafd reform. Basically these people only used their positions to better them on the
-Aleppo in 1850 there were distributes that happened, and they limited Euro reform. Christian
communities were particular parts of violence. The urban christians undermining a new order,
and the men in the council were noted in forcing this violence. Such violence of anti-christian
was new to middle eastern towns, and it came as a shock. This was not a feature of Ottoman rule. -The organizers of 1850 riots, created dangerous pretext for Euro states to become in involved in
the middle east. The central authorities crushed these rioters and punished them.
-Early 20th century there was a bargain between the Iamas and the Tasmat said yes to bureaucra-
cy and the Iamas would let go their autonomy for the perks in office. Now more and more the
power of success came from the secular power and older families adapted to the modern ways
but the ones who did not would get lower and lower in there position and would be the core of an
-If there is going to be a Caliph he has to be anArab not a Turk
-Nobles and elites in Syria and Palestine found themselves favoured about the fall of the ottoman
-They build schools in Syria to train young men so they can compete for a position in the mili-
tary and provincial schools
-Class of bureaucrat land owners were able to suvior after the fall of the Ottoman empire
- 1850s - 1860s created a military that was able to suppress groups and military conquest with
more and more of the low lands were taken from the pastoral nomads. The government told the
mountain shaks it was in there best interest to come join in there urban cities and into the mili-
tary. The prairie lands / low lands that had not been cultivated before are now being cultivated.
There was a private land ownership but in the absent low lands are the lands that large estates
that were formed in. In the high lands around the cities the rule stayed the same ie the elites had
the power. The Ottoman past was influence to the future.
- In Palestine the Jews settlement went to the lower lands whereas theArabs stayed in the moun-
- The only part of geographic Syria that the Ottoman government needed authority was the re-
gion Mt. Lebanon. In 1860 there was a fight between the Jews and Christians and the French had
to get involved. After the intervention Mt. Lebanon had their own central government.
-Fertile Crescent the country side was settled with settled and non settled civilizations. The
invention of the telegraph but Istanbul on the map with communicating with this region. The in-
creasing of trade economy, British steam ships were the ways in connecting Iraq to this modern
-Transition of the old ways into new ones.
-Midhat Pasha (1869- 71) = grant land to tribal shaks to be cultivate