Characteristics of socially engaged buddhist movements in asia. Practices look very different among different traditions (tibetan, zen, etc. ) Or had the buddha taught this: how to find out: was the buddha"s so(cid:272)iety (cid:862)so(cid:272)ially engaged? (cid:863) Orthodox religion was the vedic tradition (which affirms the caste system) Constant conflict among tribes/clans: fear of invasion by foreign clans. Fourfold sangha monks, nuns, laymen, laywomen: buddha appears to be quite socially engaged (against gender discrimination involving spiritual practice, against discrimination based on caste system) Not described as a social activist: involving protest or political/social involvement: he was, however, invited to advise various kings. Buddha could not completely remove himself from society, he had to remain connected with society to generate compassion and liberate those suffering in society. Analytic construct that allows scholars to understand similar but distinct socio-religious stirrings throughout buddhist asia and the west.