NEW240Y1 Study Guide - Final Guide: Heteronormativity, Emmett Till, White Privilege
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New240 Exam Study Sheet
Emmett Till: Emett Till was a 14 year old African American boy who was accused and punished for flirting with a white women. He was murdered by a
group the white husband along with other white racist individuals. The body was horrifically tortured, his mother display his corpse for four days. The
body of symbolically represents the long history of white supremacy and the states responsibility for marginalizing and punishing certain groups for their
physical differences. (Giroux 2006) The body was racialized and was seen as a societal threat that deserved the punishment. As Stan mention in
Lecture, racialized bodies are seen as dirty, criminal and sick due to the colonial history and the development of the “other”. This is relevant to equity
studies because the body of the 14 year old boy represents the existing racialization and the burden the social group carries due to their physical
differences that contributes to the racial imaginary.
Regimes of Disappearance: The term “regime of disappearance” is defined by Culhane , “a neoliberal mode of governance that selectively
marginalizes and or erases categories of people through strategies of representation…” (Culhane) According to Culhane, regime of disappearance has
three characteristics, 1: focus on the extreme situations ex: media will only cover severe cases involving negative aspects such drugs sex and violence
that shapes the perception of a certain social group. 2) Mediclization/Pathologizing of Poverty. PathologIization of poverty tells us poverty is the outcome
of own personal or group psychological abnormalities. As a result , they need medication to treat and cure the illness that is contributing to their poverty.
3) Lack of interest in the resistance practiced by marginalized groups. A condition that is placed onto individuals that contributes to their invisibility, or
sub human “thingification” (Culhane) This is relevant to equity studies because the filtered media representation of aboriginal women creates and
contributes social hierarchy. The media forcefully put in place characteristics onto aboriginal women, making them less than human, and not deserving of
public services and public attention to their suffering. In addition, the regime of disappearance also neglects the historical framework that contributes to
the social status and conditions of aboriginal women. The media continues to suppress the aboriginal women.
Privilege: (Carbado) There are two aspects of privilege and it is determine by factors nobody has control over such as social identity and physical
attributes. In addition, an individual can have a mixture of privilege or an individual can have a mixture of intersecting burdens. Privilege is bi-direction,
positive and negative aspects, benefits and burden. (Carbado) The positive aspect of privilege is when an individual has the advantage of another
individual or group, the sense of power and control, the availability of opportunities and options in life. Privilege given to a group is always at the expense
of another group of individual. “Racism requires white privilege. Sexism requires male privilege. Homophobia requires heterosexual privilege” (Carbado).
This is relevant to equity studies because privilege surrounds discrimination and normatively. Privilege benefits what the society view as the “norm” and
burdens whoever that doesn’t fit within the societal “norm”. For example, Prior the legalization of gay marriage heterosexual individuals had the ability to
express their love in multiple ways, such as the ability to marriage and the ability to express their love in public areas without receiving foul looks.
Although Canada has legalized gay marriage many places in the world still has not legalized it. The heterosexual couples are at an advantage at the
expense of gay couples.
Institutional Ethnography: (Kinsman) Ethnography is the study of another group of individual from a non-bias perspective. According to Kinsman,
ethnography is an understanding of ethnographies permitting a space of knowledge allowing the dismantling the framework within our society. This
concept is linked to the concept coined by Smith as Institutional Ethnography. This term explores how institutions reproduce problems for the targeting
bodies and the thoughts related to institutional relations in the perspective of the marginalized bodies. (Kinsman) Through institutional ethnography, the
state has the ability to produce knowledge that can marginalize the targeted group as a threat to the national security. The term is heavily related to
normatively. For example, during the 1950-1960’s the nation state declare gay and lesbian as a threat and danger to the state. (Kinsman) The nation
state has declared through knowledge production that there is a sexuality “norm” within the society, it reinforces the policy and laws. The production of
societal “norms” through the production of knowledge has characterized the oppressed group as weak. It once again reinforces the societal produced
norms. This is relevant to equity studies because institutional ethnography has the ability to reproduce knowledge that specifically attacks the social
groups and the creation of the “other”. There is a creation of a social hierarchy based on the nation state.
The Social Model of disability: (Oliver) The social model of disability contrasts with the individual model of disability. The individual model of
disability locates disability within individuals and labels it as a problem that requires a cure to the illness. The medicalization of disability is when there is
a biological defeat within the individual that requires a biomedical solution. On the other hand, the social model of disability locates the disability and
regards it as a societal disability rather onto the individual. (Ibid) It does not locate disability in terms of an individual’s limitations and their lack of ability
but rather the community’s limitation and disability. (Oliver) The issues within disability do not lie within the individual but rather our society and
environment for instance, institutional discrimination and environmental barriers. Our society provides many tools of the “able” and the society “norm”
such as chairs and tables in school settings to learn, but is not capable of equipping people with disability with the same service and tools. The social
model of disability is relevant to equity studies because it reinforces inequality against disable people and attacks the issues of “ablism”. The “normal”
population would not be able to function as fluidly as we do without the assistance of the state, thus this aspect symbolizes the existing institutional
discrimination against people with disability within our social fabric. (Barnes)
Africans Discourse: (Mama) Africanist Discourse is a socially constructed ideology that has been used in the history to label the African population and
the nation state as less capable and as the “other” when compared to the white population. (Mama) The socially constructed ideologies and beliefs have
been used to justify the colonialization of the African continents and slavery of the African population. (M) The Africaist Discourse has been used the
most by the Britain to justify the colonialization and the enslavement of the population, the language depicted in the africanist discourse also help with the
justification. The language used to describe the continents of Africa and the population are such as savage, a historical and primitive. The africanist
discourse weakens the african population and removes the threats they may have pose to the western population and the colonialization will be fully
justify. Some of the British language is, they are only “helping” the african population to be more civilized. Africanist Discourse is not only evident in the
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