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NMC101H1 (20)
Final

Exam review based on readings + lec notes from last year

61 Pages
148 Views

Department
Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations
Course Code
NMC101H1
Professor
Maria Subtelny

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Important Terms, Concepts or Ideas for NMC review including Essay Topics
Essay Topics:
1) Culture of the Islamic World
2) Arabic Language
3) Islamic views on government
4) Sufism
5) Islamic Art
6) Religious Minorities
7) Traditions and Modernity
TERM
Defintion
Geographical
significance
What? Human geography
WKHVWXG\RISRSXODWLRQSDWWHUQVDQGSURFHVVHVWKDWVKDSHKXPDQDFWLYLW\DQGLQWHUDFWLRQ
FDQEHKLVWRULFDOSROLWLFDOFXOWXUDOHFRQRPLFXUEDQhealth-related, education-related,
and
HYHQ³LPDJLQHG´
Where?
PDLQJHRJUDSKLFDOUHJLRQV$UDELDQSHQLQVXOD$QDWROLDQSODWHDX,UDQLDQSODWHDX
Eurasian
steppe
DULGRUVHPL-arid²90% ; major rivers/fertile regions: Tigris and Euphrates rivers (Fertile
Crescent), Nile river, Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers, Indus river
When?
6th c Arabian peninsula
Why?
human geography greatly influenced by physical geography²the study of the physical
landscape of the earth
Modes of life & social organization
nomadic, agrarian/rural, urban/town-dwelling
VSHFLDOVLWXDWLRQRIPRXQWDLQSHRSOHV
W\SHVRIVRFLDORUJDQL]DWLRQWULEHFODQH[WHQGHGSDWULDUFKDOIDPLO\QXFOHDUIDPLO\
Who?
Muhammad and the beginning of the Islamic era
Historical
Setting or
backdrop to
rise of Islamic
Era
What? Backdrop to rise of Islamic Era:
Before the rise of Islam, two rival empires were on the decline and a power vaccum was
created in region.
Where?
Arabian peninsula 6th c.vnot civilizational centre; pastoral nomads; trading centres;
religionsvChristianity, Judaism, Zoroastrianism, animism/polytheism
-begins in Arabian Peninsula---not center of any civilization, no rivers. But had trade
routes and important trade centers
www.notesolution.com
-polytheists-believe in many gods
-animistic beliefs: worship trees, rocks, streams etc
-Kabah-pagan shrine
When?
6th c Arabian peninsula
Why? Why rivals? Æcultural, religious differences... both vying for control of southern
Arabia
Who?
main political entitiesvByzantium (in west, Christian), Sasanian/Persian empire (in east,
Zoroastrian); rivals, on the decline:
2 big Empires
WEST: Byzantine Empire: Greek Orthodox Christianity, Greek Hellenistic
EAST: Persian Empire/Sassanian Empire-Capital: Mesopotamia---civilization--state
religion: Zoroastrianism--pluralistic religion--light vs darkness--called fire worshippers
-Iranosemitic
-Language-Aramaic
-jews were everywhere in this empire
Muhammad
(d. 632)
What? Islam as a religion and civilization made its entry onto world stage with
career of Prophet Muhammad. By the time of his death, most of the Arabian
Peninsula had converted to Islam; and he united the tribes of Arabia into a single
Muslim religious polity (ummah). while at Medina he established the first Islamic
polity.
-this move from mecca to medina marked new chapter: they no longer a small
oppressed religious group in Mecca; now were an autonomus religio-political
community of Believers that dominted medina
Where?
born Mecca, clan of Hashim, tribe of Quraysh,
-to escape o escape persecution by the Meccan Tribes, Muhammad and his
followers migrated to Medina in the year 622 (Hijra: migration)
When?
Around 610 he started having divine revelations from god, came to accept role as
messenger of God, wrote them down Quran (eternal speech word of God)
-622 Hijra
Why? to escape persecution in Mecca and establish Ummah, and expansion
Who?
Messenger of God. founder of Islam,prophet
as prophetvZ^o_}(}Z]Z]}ÇVDvP}('}V]À]À]vÀo]}v
]v(}u}(ZYµ[v~]vArabic language); message is monotheism
{ovattack against polytheism of Meccan elite; leaves for Medina 622 CE (=1 AH)
{uvvcreates religio-political community; eliminates opposition by means of
force and
diplomacy; use of nomadic tribal }}Vl}À<Z]vD
Muhajirun: believers who emigrated with him
www.notesolution.com
After his Death
-Successors handpicked from family
-Caliphs represent him -
-Movement out of Arabian Peninsula and into Persian Empire
-637 capture of the Sasanian capital ruler flees to the East
Ansar: helpers UDµZuu[(](}oo}Á]vD]vÁZ}]vÀ]Z]u
Ridda wars
What?
$IWHU3URSKHWKGHDWKSHRSOHZHUHOLNHRKZHGRQWRZHXWD[HVDQ\PRUHVRPHFODLPHGWR
be prophets...upheaval confusion
-so in response Abu Bakr sent armed bands of believers to the main centers of opposition
in Arabia..gained more followers with force and defeated False prophets like Yamama and
Musaylima
Where?
Arabian Peninsula, and into Sasanian and Byzantine empires
When?
-by 634 Abu Bakr and believers of Medina had brought all of Arabian peninsula under
their control
Why?
5LGGD:DUceaseless military activity lead to mobilization of standing army, mass
allies,..... which lead them to the steps of Sasanian empire and Byzantine
because:
-emergence of Arabia as a state, military potential of Arabian pop. allowed them
to penetrate empires and their territories
Who?
Abu akr and the believers of Medina, second Caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab
Islamic
Caliphal
Empires
successors of Muhammad called khalifa ~EvPo]Zo]ZUuv^À]Pv_
{}P]Àu}Àuv}µ}(]vv]vµo
{KZ}}Æ}^Z]PZoÇ-Pµ]_o]Zïît61)vcapital Medina (Arabia); local Arab elite
{Umayyads (661t750)vcapital Damascus (Syria); Arab tribal kingdom
{Abbasids (750t1258)vcapital Baghdad (Mesopotamia/s. Iraq); Persian-influenced empire
{Z]PZ}]vôZ-9th centuries (caliph Harun al-Rashid)
{Ào}uv}(lÇ]v]µ]}v}(u]~uÇUµµcracy, ideology)
{]u}v}(dµl]ouv]vZu]o]Ç
{]}(]vvv}u]-independent dynastic states 10th c. (e.g., Samanids, Buyids,
Ghaznavids, Seljuksvin Central Asia, Iran; Umayyids in Spain; Fatimids in Egypt)
{PZ}Çby Mongols 1258, caliph executed
Umayyads
Took part in second civil war (680-92) Umayyads vs The partisans of Ali
-huuÇoµPZo][}v
Shiites believed only members of the prophets family could be caliphs and did not accept
µZ}]Ç}(µuuǵo]ZXXXoo]}µvo][}vvvv
-2nd civil war: crystallises beginning of split of Shiite
Ali's son Hassan Killed BIG in Shiite history
-culture of martyrdom beginning of theological differences
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Important Terms, Concepts or Ideas for NMC review including Essay Topics Essay Topics: 1) Culture of the Islamic World 2) Arabic Language 3) Islamic views on government 4) Sufism 5) Islamic Art 6) Religious Minorities 7) Traditions and Modernity TERM Defintion Geographical What? Human geography significance 9K089:/\41545:O,9L435,990738,3/574.088089K,98K,50K:2,3,.9L;L9\,3/L3907,.9L43 .,3-0KL8947L.,O54OL9L.,O.:O9:7,O0.4342L.:7-,3health-related, education-related, and 0;03L2,JL30/ Where? 2,L3J04J7,5KL.,O70JL4387,-L,3503L38:O,3,94OL,35O,90,:,7,3L,35O,90,: Eurasian steppe ,7L/47802L-arid90% ; major rivers/fertile regions: Tigris and Euphrates rivers (Fertile Crescent), Nile river, Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers, Indus river When? 6th c Arabian peninsula Why? human geography greatly influenced by physical geographythe study of the physical landscape of the earth Modes of life & social organization nomadic, agrarian/rural, urban/town-dwelling 850.L,O8L9:,9L434124:39,L35045O08 9\5084184.L,O47J,3L],9L4397L-0.O,30[903/0/5,97L,7.K,O1,2LO\3:.O0,71,2LO\ Who? Muhammad and the beginning of the Islamic era Historical What? Backdrop to rise of Islamic Era: Setting or Before the rise of Islam, two rival empires were on the decline and a power vaccum was backdrop to created in region. rise of Islamic Era Where? Arabian peninsula 6th c.Lnot civilizational centre; pastoral nomads; trading centres; religionsLChristianity, Judaism, Zoroastrianism, animism/polytheism -begins in Arabian Peninsula---not center of any civilization, no rivers. But had trade routes and important trade centers www.notesolution.com -polytheists-believe in many gods -animistic beliefs: worship trees, rocks, streams etc -Kabah-pagan shrine When? 6th c Arabian peninsula Why? Why rivals? cultural, religious differences... both vying for control of southern Arabia Who? main political entitiesLByzantium (in west, Christian), Sasanian/Persian empire (in east, Zoroastrian); rivals, on the decline: 2 big Empires WEST: Byzantine Empire: Greek Orthodox Christianity, Greek Hellenistic EAST: Persian Empire/Sassanian Empire-Capital: Mesopotamia---civilization--state religion: Zoroastrianism--pluralistic religion--light vs darkness--called fire worshippers -Iranosemitic -Language-Aramaic -jews were everywhere in this empire Muhammad What? Islam as a religion and civilization made its entry onto world stage with (d. 632) career of Prophet Muhammad. By the time of his death, most of the Arabian Peninsula had converted to Islam; and he united the tribes of Arabia into a single Muslim religious polity (ummah). while at Medina he established the first Islamic polity. -this move from mecca to medina marked new chapter: they no longer a small oppressed religious group in Mecca; now were an autonomus religio-political community of Believers that dominted medina Where? born Mecca, clan of Hashim, tribe of Quraysh, -to escapeo escape persecution by the Meccan Tribes, Muhammad and his followers migrated to Medina in the year 622 (Hijra: migration) When? Around 610 he started having divine revelations from god, came to accept role as messenger of God, wrote them down Quran (eternal speech word of God) -622 Hijra Why? to escape persecution in Mecca and establish Ummah, and expansion Who? Messenger of God. founder of Islam,prophet as prophetLZ^Zo_}}Z] Z]Z}8,ZZL2}}8 ]Z]]Lo]}L ]L}K}Z;[L~]LArabic language); message is monotheism {ZoLattack against polytheism of Meccan elite; leaves for Medina 622 CE (=1 AH) {ZZZKLLcreates religio-political community; eliminates opposition by means of force and diplomacy; use of nomadic tribal }}Z8lZ}Z]L, Muhajirun: believers who emigrated with him www.notesolution.com Ansar: helpers 7,ZKK[Z]Z}oo}Z]L,]LZ}]L]Z]K After his Death -Successors handpicked from family -Caliphs represent him - -Movement out of Arabian Peninsula and into Persian Empire -637 capture of the Sasanian capital ruler flees to the East Ridda wars What? 1907!745K09K/0,9K5045O0Z070OLN04KZ0/4394Z0:9,[08,3\24708420.O,L20/94 be prophets...upheaval confusion -so in response Abu Bakr sent armed bands of believers to the main centers of opposition in Arabia..gained more followers with force and defeated False prophets like Yamama and Musaylima Where? Arabian Peninsula, and into Sasanian and Byzantine empires When? -by 634 Abu Bakr and believers of Medina had brought all of Arabian peninsula under their control Why? #L//,:,78ceaseless military activity lead to mobilization of standing army, mass allies,..... which lead them to the steps of Sasanian empire and Byzantine because: -emergence of Arabia as a state, military potential of Arabian pop. allowed them to penetrate empires and their territories Who? Abu akr and the believers of Medina, second Caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab Islamic successors of Muhammad called khalifa ~-L2o]ZZ o]Z7KLZ^] 2L_ Caliphal {}2ZZ]K}KL}}]LL]LZo Empires {KZ}}}^Z]2Zo-2]_ o]ZZ~J61)Lcapital Medina (Arabia); local Arab elite {Umayyads (661J750)Lcapital Damascus (Syria); Arab tribal kingdom {Abbasids (750J1258)Lcapital Baghdad (Mesopotamia/s. Iraq); Persian-influenced empire {Z]2Z}]LZ-9th centuries (caliph Harun al-Rashid) {o}KL}l]LZ]]}LZ}K]~K7cracy, ideology) {]K}L }@l] oKL]LZK]o] {]Z}]LLL}ZK]-independent dynastic states 10th c. (e.g., Samanids, Buyids, Ghaznavids, SeljuksLin Central Asia, Iran; Umayyids in Spain; Fatimids in Egypt) {2ZZ}by Mongols 1258, caliph executed Umayyads Took part in second civil war (680-92) Umayyads vs The partisans of Ali -DKKZo2Zo][ZZ}L Shiites believed only members of the prophets family could be caliphs and did not accept Z}]}KK o]Z:::oo]}Lo][ZZ}LLZ LLZ -2nd civil war: crystallises beginning of split of Shiite Ali's son Hassan Killed BIG in Shiite history -culture of martyrdom beginning of theological differences www.notesolution.com Shia vs Sunni -Umayyad dynasty overthrown by Abbasid family in 750 C.E Abbasids Where? Baghdad capital of Abbasid empire When? 700-950 Why? - period 700-950 important developments in key institutions of the caliphate and Muslim empire such as army and imperial bureaucracy -early Abbasid armies relied on Khurasan (settlers of Arabic origin) who the first Abbasids had ridden to power -
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