(750-1258) one of the three caliph empires. Followed the Umayyad Empire. Established its capital in
Baghdad. Reached their highpoint around the 8th-9th century under caliph Harem al-Rashid. This
empire lead to the invention of many key institutions such as democracies and military (which way
influence by the Turkic). This period of time also saw the rise of independent or semi-independent
dynastic states. Saw its end when the Mongols destroyed Baghdad and executed the caliph in 1258
Refers to the migration of the prophet and his followers to the city of Medina in 622. As the prophet
was warned of a plan to assassinate him he fled to the city of Yathrib known today as Medina. Hijra
also refers to the Islamic calendar which is based on a lunar system. The migration of the prophet
marks the first year of the higri calendar
‘Meaning the people of the book’ and referring to the non-Muslims who adhere to a faith and have a
book of prayers. In the Quran Christianity and Judaism are referred to as people of the book
because they too recognize the God of Abraham as the one and only God. Muslim rulers and
scholars have also included other religions such as Zoroastrianism and Hinduism. In Islam ‘people
of the book’ practice tawhid (monotheism), recognize life after death, judgment, heaven and angels,
hell, believe in the same prophet and have similar beliefs regarding the creation.
One of the three caliph empires. Was founded after the death of the prophet Mohammad in 632.
Medina was its capital and lead to the expansion of Islam through North Africa, Arabian Peninsula
and the Iranian highlands. During this empire the religion of Islam became widespread. Abu Bakr,
Umar, Uthman and Ali are the caliphs that governed this empire.
The second largest denomination of Islam after Sunni Islam. In contrast to the other schools of
thought, Shia Islam holds that Muhammad’s family and certain Imams (descendents of the prophet)
have special spiritual and political rule over the community. Also believe that Ali was the rightful
successor of Muhammad and reject the other three Rashidum caliphs. Represent roughly 1/10th of
the Islam population and live in majority in Iran and Iraq. Shia divides into different branches with
the Twelver’s being the largest one.