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NFS284H1 Study Guide - Comprehensive Final Guide: Energy Density, Metabolic Waste, Peristalsis
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37 Pages
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Fall 2016

Department
Nutritional Science
Course Code
NFS284H1
Professor
Debbie Gurfinkel
Study Guide
Final

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UTSG
NFS284H1
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Energy Balance and Weight Management
Obesity and cancer
o Observational studies
o The cancers with the most research attention (colorectal and breast)
Prostate cancer has not been shown to be correlated to obesity
Obese patients may not respond to treatment as well as their lean counterparts
Single random mutation = cancer
The cell de-differentiates stop functioning as their own cells and just become rapidly growing
(proliferative) cells
o They do’t respod to oral signals that cells have
Ie. Replication
Uncontrolled
Not able to be repaired
Apoptosis is the ultimate step that the cell takes to get rid of damaged cells
o Completely kills the cells
o But this does’t happe i aer
Insulin and estrogen
o Promote cell growth (healthy or unhealthy cells)
Estrogen circulates in the blood bound to protein
o It is less bio-available when its bound
When it is circulating in free form it is MORE of a stimulant to cell growth
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
In the liver the SHBG decreases and increases free estrogen
Increases adipose tissue mass
o Site of estrogen synthesis
In the post menopausal woman this is a significant source of estrogen in the body
This stimulates breast cancer cells and decreases apoptosis
o Increased risk for tumor development
All of the increased insulin acts as a stimulant on the colon
Increased FFA release increases inflammation!!
Weight stigmatization **
o Based on weight status
o Both ends of the spectrum are affected
o Generally negative attitudes towards the obese
o Very toxic - with children
This attitude implied - weight management is the SOLE problem of the individual
o Societal problems + internalized problems
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com

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Description
UTSG NFS284H1 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE find more resources at oneclass.com Energy Balance and Weight Management  Obesity and cancer o Observational studies o The cancers with the most research attention (colorectal and breast)  Prostate cancer has not been shown to be correlated to obesity  Obese patients may not respond to treatment as well as their lean counterparts  Single random mutation = cancer  The cell de-differentiates stop functioning as their own cells and just become rapidly growing (proliferative) cells o They do▯’t respo▯d to ▯or▯al signals that cells have  Ie. Replication  Uncontrolled  Not able to be repaired  Apoptosis is the ultimate step that the cell takes to get rid of damaged cells o Completely kills the cells o But this does▯’t happe▯ i▯ ▯a▯▯er  Insulin and estrogen o Promote cell growth (healthy or unhealthy cells)  Estrogen circulates in the blood bound to protein o It is less bio-available when its bound  When it is circulating in free form it is MORE of a stimulant to cell growth find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com   In the liver the SHBG decreases and increases free estrogen  Increases adipose tissue mass o Site of estrogen synthesis  In the post menopausal woman this is a significant source of estrogen in the body  This stimulates breast cancer cells and decreases apoptosis o Increased risk for tumor development  All of the increased insulin acts as a stimulant on the colon  Increased FFA release increases inflammation!!  Weight stigmatization ** o Based on weight status o Both ends of the spectrum are affected o Generally negative attitudes towards the obese o Very toxic - with children  This attitude implied - weight management is the SOLE problem of the individual o Societal problems + internalized problems find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com What percentage of people who attempt weight loss fail?  90% "In the current environment, people who are not devoting substantial conscious effort to managing ▯ody ▯eight are pro▯a▯ly gai▯i▯g ▯eight.” Peters 2002 Basal Metabolism - energy required to keep vital organs working  Typically expressed as a rate (kcal / time)  Can decrease with weight loss  Considered an adaptation to starvation NEAT - energy expended through unconscious exercise (ie. Fidgeting and moving around) TEF - when we consume food we expend energy in the process  Fat tends to be fairly efficient Positive Energy Balance - obesity side of the equation  Carb and protein are minor contributors to body fat Doubly Labelled Water - can be used without equipment  Participants can go about daily lives and still get a measurement find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com  When you're young you have more lean tissue  The white component is the fat These two individuals are the same weight but the older person has a higher percentage of body  fat  Sarcopenia - loss of muscles with age  The location of fat in the body is important  Visceral fat - storing fat in the centre of the body  BMI used with weight circumference **FFA alter the metabolism of the body  Women tend to develop CV disease 10 years later than men since they deposit fat on their hips **know the difference between satiation and satiety Ghrelin - stimulates food intake Cholecystokinin - suppresses food intake find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com  Do▯’t k▯o▯ ▯hether differe▯▯es i▯ hor▯o▯es affe▯t ▯ody ▯eight or ▯i▯e ▯ersa  Lean individuals have more ghrelin than obese individuals o The absolute levels are not as important as the DECLINE right after meal  With obese individuals this causes a prolonged eating of a meal  Leptin is proportional to percent body fat  Suppresses food intake  Evolutionary - important to have strong hunger feelings but not as important to have strong full feelings What happens to leptin levels during weight loss?  They go down What happens to leptin resistance during weight loss?  As soon as you start losing weight, leptin goes down and that strong hunger feeling makes it very hard to overcome Adaptive Thermogenesis  Brown adipose tissue is brown because is has mitochondria  They do this to generate heat to stay warm - smaller animals  Obese individuals are better conservers of energy o Obese conserve energy better find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com o Lean expend energy better  Doctors look at both BMI and waist circumference  Screen for depression, eating and mood disorders o Recognition of the fact that mood and food intake are related  Social support is sometimes the tipping point between someone being successful or not with their weight loss ** reduce the energy density of the food!!  Satiation and satiety are related to how much room the food takes up in the stomach o Not really about the amount of calories  Lipase inhibitor o Weight loss drug find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com November 21st - Exercise, Fitness and Health  Can reduce these risks by being more physically active  Only 9% of Canadian children meet requirements of physical activity  Most active children in BC  PARTICIPACTION* o Government agency that promotes physical activity and sport projects  Canadian Guidelines o 10 minute bouts of activity  Aerobic activity is measured by cardiac output, HR (heart rate)  Repetition increase = endurance increase  Personalize your activities  Overdoing it, injury Aerobic Metabolism find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com  Requires O2  Converting glucose, AA to ATP Anaerobic Metabolism  Absence of O2  Converts ATP o Much less ATP o Less efficient  During PA your muscles need more energy, therefore more O2  Increase breathing rate, and HR  Muscle has creatine phospate which gets converted to ATP o This is in the muscle  Practically instant ATP Lasts 10-15 seconds  o Then we switch over to anaerobic metabolism  Glucose gets converted to lactic acid  When aerobic metabolism cant meet the demand you call upon anaerobic  When you have reached the stage where breathing and HR are delivering sufficient O2 to the muscle you can begin to maintain exercise for a reasonable amount of time  Glucose produces ATP and 2 electrons that go down to ETC o Glucose goes through to citric acid cycle = more ATP developed find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com  Heart enjoys using FFAs o They are always available which is good so that HR continues  Moderate intensity activity is basically 50/50 FFA and glucose  Very high intensity = mainly burning glucose o Probably using anaerobic metabolism !  Effects of training (aerobically) o Increased SV o Increased blood vessels in muscles o Increased TBV o Increased RBCs o Increased ability to sore glycogen in muscle o Increased # and size of mitochondria in muscle (**** answer question on page 23) find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com  Need glucose for HIIT Hyponatremia - low Na in blood  If you exercise for excessive periods of time and consume water o Net effect is you are diluting the sodium in your blood!!!  Potentially fatal o A trained athlete is conscious of how much water/electrolyte they are consuming  Sports drinks = high in sodium find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com Nov 16 Lecture - Energy Balance and Weight Management Wednesday, November 16, 2016 12:46 PM  Obesity and cancer o Observational studies o The cancers with the most research attention (colorectal and breast)  Prostate cancer has not been shown to be correlated to obesity  Obese patients may not respond to treatment as well as their lean counterparts  Single random mutation = cancer  The cell de-differentiates stop functioning as their own cells and just become rapidly growing (proliferative) cells o They do▯’t respo▯d to ▯or▯al sig▯als that ▯ells ha▯e  Ie. Replication  Uncontrolled  Not able to be repaired  Apoptosis is the ultimate step that the cell takes to get rid of damaged cells o Completely kills the cells o But this does▯’t happe▯ i▯ ▯a▯▯er  Insulin and estrogen o Promote cell growth (healthy or unhealthy cells)  Estrogen circulates in the blood bound to protein o It is less bio-available when its bound find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com  When it is circulating in free form it is MORE of a stimulant to cell growth   In the liver the SHBG decreases and increases free estrogen  Increases adipose tissue mass o Site of estrogen synthesis  In the post menopausal woman this is a significant source of estrogen in the body  This stimulates breast cancer cells and decreases apoptosis o Increased risk for tumor development  All of the increased insulin acts as a stimulant on the colon  Increased FFA release increases inflammation!!  Weight stigmatization ** o Based on weight status o Both ends of the spectrum are affected o Generally negative attitudes towards the obese o Very toxic - with children find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com  This attitude implied - weight management is the SOLE problem of the individual o Societal problems + internalized problems What percentage of people who attempt weight loss fail?  90% "In the current environment, people who are not devoting substantial conscious effort to managing ▯ody ▯eight are pro▯a▯ly gai▯i▯g ▯eight.” Peters 2002 find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com Calcium Wednesday, November 30, 2016 12:19 PM Calcium - The amount of calcium that a pregnant woman needs to absurd is really not that different from a normal woman - The RDA takes into account the low calcium absorptio n hence the RDA=1000mg takes into account that 70% of calcium that you consume will be unabsorbed - if you don't drink milk, some vegetables are good substitutes for calcium (ie. Kale) - We regulate our blood calcium levels very precisely and the calcium will move in and out of our bone to regulate - Calcium is important for blood pressure regulation - Inverse relationship between calcium intake and colo n cancer ○ Calcium because it tends to form insoluble salts tends to form with toxins in the colon and hence become less bioactive! - The matrix allows bone for a bit of flexibility - Trabecular bone = spongy ○ Metabolically active bone - Cortical bone -compact - Throughout our life bones are being modelled due to different stresses and normal activities of living - Osteoblast - involved in bone formation ○ Will secrete the organic and inorganic components of bon e - Osteoclast - break down done Responsible for bone resorption ○ ○ Consume bone by secreting an acid that dissolves the bone ○ Need to have this ability in order to reshape the b ne in response to stresses and injury ○ Later on in line these become more active than the o steoblasts Osteoporosis - The organic matrix and inorganic matrix lose protein Osteopenia - Low bone density find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com - Low bone density - Not as severe as osteoporosis - When you look at bone microscopically … the bone on the left has a lot of bone that’s been resorbed and not rebuilt - - What happens in the spine is that the vertebrae becom e crushed - The front part of the vertebrae is trabecular and th e back is cortical ○ Crushing of the trabecular bone causes the curved shape because the vertebrae are becoming more triangular in shape ins etad of rectangular - Women are more vulnerable, family history, racial dif ferences, body size all have an impact on osteoporosis ****Accretion: uptake and accumulation of calcium from th e diet - Bones love estrogen - During menopause there is not much estrogen so the b ones suffer - Estrogen stimulates osteoblast activity - Men make their estrogen from testosterone - Fracture threshold - bones are very vulnerable - When you're young, build up your peak bone mass - Want to maintain your calcium and vitamin D intake dur ing your lifetime - With a bone fracture you are 3 -4 times more likely to die - You are likely to have other health problems as well so you have compounded stress on the body - Exercise stresses your muscles which stimulates bone materialization and osteoblast activity ○ You're only going to get this mineralization if ther e's calcium in your diet - In order to get the calcium from the salmon you nee to eat the bones - Some products have fortified calcium and vitamin D find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com - Some products have fortified calcium and vitamin D find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com MIDTERM 1 STUDY PACK Introduction to Diet and Nutrients (Lecture) Essential Nutrient: nutrients that must come from diet; if they are absent from diet = DEATH!!!! Macronutrients: Carbs, fats, protein Amino acids: make up proteins; there are ESSENTIAL and NONESSENTIAL forms Kcalorie content of macronutrients (Atwater Numbers): Carbs: 4 kcal/g Fats: 9 kcal/g Proteins: 4 kcal/g Alcohol: 7 kcal/g Starch: digestible carb Dietary fibre: INDIGESTIBLE carb Triacylglycerols: makes up fats :) (3 FA + glycerol) PUFA/MUFA: fatty acids have double bonds; poly-unsaturated fatty acids (ex. Canola + soybean oil)/mono-unsaturated fatty acids (ex. olive oil) Essential fatty acids: 2 PUFAS: linoleic acid (omega-6) + alpha-linolenic acid (omega-3) (*number refers to positioning of double bond) Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids: can be synthesized from alpha linoleic acid - DHA (Docosahexaenoic acid), EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) - multiple double bonds Saturated + trans fat: associated with incr. Risk of disease Micronutrients: vitamins + minerals (micro = needed in small amounts) Fat soluble vitamins: ADEK (can be stored in liver and adipose tissue + not rapidly depleted by body) - months, toxic in excess 1 find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com Water soluble vitamins: B & C (cannot be stored, rapidly depleted except B12) - weeks, no worries ya poop it out What is the difference between: Glucose, sucrose, and high-fructose syrup? Glucose - monosaccharide Sucrose - disaccharide of glucose and fructose High-fructose syrup - 1:1 mixture of glucose + fructose (often labelled as glucose/fructose) Diseases with high nutritional relevance: Goitre - deficient iodine, thyroid inflammation Anemia - deficient iron Cancer Heart Disease Stroke Diabetes Nutrient density: amount of nutrients in a food relative to its caloric content (higher nutrient density is gud) Portion distortion: Amount that you eat in one sitting (portion) may or may not be equal to one Canada food guide serving Subpackaging: Packaging into smaller portions/fewer Kcals (normally 100 Kc
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