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NFS382 Term Test #1 Notes
Individuals take multivitamin/nultimineral supplements for many reasons. Some
characteristics of individuals who use vitamin/mineral supplements:
•Individuals who have a special diet, e.g. vegans
•Highly educated individuals
This might be a problem from a public health perspective:
•Multivitamins may not be accessible/affordable for everyone and those who are
likely to benefit most are the individuals who are not likely to take them.
EAR (Estimated Average Requirement) is the daily intake that satisfies the requirement of
50% of a population for a specific gender and age. The Median.
The RDA (Recommended Daily Allowance) is the daily intake that satisfies almost the
entire population, 97.5%, It is 2 standard deviations above the EAR. RDA = EAR + 2 SD
The UL (Upper Tolerable intake) is the highest intake to exhibit no harmful/toxic effects.
The AI (Adequate intake) is used when there is no EAR established. It generally satisfies
the needs of most, similar to the RDA. AI is determine based on observations of intakes of
Several cell types in the stomach secrete different substances that comprise gastric juice.
•Parietal Cells secrete hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor
•G-cells secrete gastric hormone
•Neck cells secrete mucus
•Chief cells secrete enzymes
Osteoporosis is a chronic disease characterized by compromised bone strength which can
increase the risk of a fragility fracture. Low bone mineral density can be accessed via DZA
T-scores based on BMD used for diagnosis
Normal: +2.5 to –1.0
Osteopenia –1.0 to –2.5
Severe Osteoporosis <-2.5 with a fracture
The circulating, active form of vitamin D is important in calcium homeostasis.
•1-α-hydroxylase enzyme is used to convert vitamin D to its active form.
•Increased levels of 1,25(OH)2D3, Calcium, Phosphorus inhibit1-α-hydroxylase
•Increased PTJ activates 1-α-hydroxylase enzyme
Active vitamin D elicits genomic effects
•Active Vitamin D binds to VDR and enters the cell nucleus. The vitamin D-VDR
complex binds to genomic region which encodes calbindin protein, activating