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2009 full exam notes

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University of Toronto St. George
Mark Kingwell

September 17 Platos Republic NB= especially important CRAFT IS VIRTUE IS KNOW-HOW Aristocratic Definition 1. Problems of ends- afterlife is uncertain, how do we gain knowledge of a proper end 2. knowledge of good Socrates on moral psychology (NB: v. Plato) virtue is a form of know-how knowledge knowledge brings virtue therefore, it is impossible to know the right thing and not do it thus, for Socrates no akrasia (weakness of the will)- to know the right thing and wanting to do it: N - 2ND ------- Y - 1ST He then concludes there is Psychological conflict, Akrasia. *Knowledgeable Aristocratic Definition 3. Harm- Socrates said to never harm Enter Thrasymachus of Chaleedon, a Sophist- argue for hiers (lawyers) character dialogue between Socrates and Thrasymachus who gets humiliated. *Political Realist Definition - person who believes power is everything - justice is the advantage of the strong 5 false moves: 1. Error (P.339c)- are they ever mistaken of their advantage? yes, but can be right 2. Belief (340b-d)- they are acting on what they believe their advantage to be 3. Craft (341a)- is ruling a craft? yes, a ruler has strength and authority and also attends to something 4. Advanage (343d [NB: a variation of 2 above]- valuable things (e.g. castles, army) to help give you power 5. Knowledge (350b) [NB: a variation of 3 above]- is there knowledge required for the power? Bad Socratic arguments: 333e BoxerThief- Boxer: knows how to defend one self and offend, Thief: Socrates wants 352a soul-city analogy (soul-psyche-living part of person) fair legal code for the society. 369a E-Z reader suggestion- helps understanding (353e) Psychological Definition excellence virtue-> end (purpose, telos) Great, But has this solved anything? BOOK 2 What kind of good is this? pure good internal instrumental good (knowleddge) = lead to more good things inside external instrument good (medicine, excercise) = lead to more good things outside www.notesolution.comWhy rule? honour- status in the social order wealth fear altruism Why should we be good? the disencentives are negative ways to deter people from crime. fear of mortal punishment fear of divine punishment [NB: 365e Cephalus Pascal timidity convention positive consequences Regulative Ideal City (an u-toos, no place, or utopian thought-experiment) what is the purpose of this thought-experiment of the ideal city? to see some things more clearly to sharpen and direct out aspirations to criticisze or satirize existing conditions Basic structure of the city division of labour (369a ff) restriction of luxuries (372) = makes city lazy, valuable for conflicts from othercities, and degenerates the souls integrity by wantng more. readiness for war (373) need for guardians (377) -special education the poets disciplined change is dangerous (381aS) the noble lie (382c-d). They will make the city more ideal. BOOK 3 How do you create a class-based society? Myth of the Metals (414a) [NB: an instance of the noble lie] ideology of social strata mthhological backing = defend ideology using myths naturalization (the taken-for-granted) = accepted as natural (e.g. to honour parents) Invisibility = ideology is invisible to the eye mobility = the power structure is not fixed and allows social mobility Glauccons challenge: moral skepticisim Gyges ring: manipulate consequences injustice plus reputation for justice (361b) Platos Triparite Soul [NB vs. Socrates simpler moral psychology] faculty psychology dynamic model Consider: Leonitius and the corpses = He sees the corpses near the gate. He was tempted not to look and to look and ends up looking. (1) reason vs. (2) appetite (desire) (3) will (spirit)
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