In the Apology, he’s on trial for 2 reasons: not recognizing Gods (atheism); corrupting the youth.
Oracle of Delphi: Socrates was the wisest of the all. Socrates said this isn’t true because he isn’t
the wisest one (negative: trying to prove the oracle wrong was against the society).
Shouldn’t fear death because we don’t know what it’s like.
Socratic method: cross-examine them and draw out their beliefs and judge their soundness.
Usually ends in puzzleness (no answer).
Plato tries to convince him to escape (this is unjust!); but Socrates refuses. Because: should
never do wrong (escaping) even in retaliation; we should be just; better to suffer than to do
harm. He made a consent to the city to stay (stay just with keeping the consent). We should
suffer than to do evil; doing injustice harms you that you get never compensated for.
* study the development of the city, Principle of Specialization, different classes and parts of
souls and analogies.
In the Republic, Socrates talks about justice with other philosophers.
Argument 1) justice is the advantage of the stronger
Socrates: Justice is something that is good both for reward and in itself.
Why should we be just?
To explain, Socrates builds a society, using Principle of Specialization:
No one is self-sufficient. Each person should do only the job which he/she is best at; this is
more effective and efficient.
There should be more people, more land and have guardians to protect them (warrior class)
How to educate warrior class: strict censorship in music, stories, etc. because children are
malleable and impressionable; they shouldn’t be surrounded by things that influence them in the
Further specialization: guardians, rulers, soldiers.
How do we make people do only what is good for the city?
Noble lie: gold, silver and bronze souls.
Trying to make people to obey the laws of the city and not move out of their position. Virtues in the city: wisdom (of the rulers), courage (of the warriors), moderation (people
understand their place in society), justice (everyone acting one of their occupation which they’re
Parts of the soul: rational, appetitive and spiritual
Spiritual vs. rational part of soul: spiritual part can’t be part of the reason; only children and
animals have it whereas some never get rational part of the soul.
Justice: to have your soul govern by the rational part of the soul.
Philosopher king: until philosophers rule as kings and lead men genuinely and adequately, cities
will have no rest from human race or evil (by Socrates).
Analogies: ship (the real captain; stargazer, babbler who knows nothing) philosophers should be
put to use because philosophy isn’t regarded well in the city. Son: Actual good vs. apparent
good: we all pursue the good though we disagree what the “good” is; we don’t adequately grasp
what good is, but philosophers know (objectively). The good itself is in the intelligible realm. The
good gives truth to things and is an object of knowledge. Cave: one escapes from the cave and
goes out to the world to recognize the “truth” and see what actually is. He recognizes the
difference from what is normally thought to be true from what is actually true.
The divided line: Socrates makes this line and divides it into 4 unequal parts. There is a
hierarchy of things according to how true they are. Understanding is the highest condition of the
soul. Corresponds to 4 conditions of the soul. 4 levels of things that exist: images (of actual
objects; with imagination and belief) > geometry of math (thought) > beings and good
(understanding) * philosophers are concerned with understanding, the highest part of the soul.
Does it pay to be just?
Philosophers at the top of the rule > democratic state (honour-loving class; warriors); money-
loving (ruled by tyranny)
Philosophers are in the best position to judge what the best is and happiest for the people
because they can distinguish different parts of the soul and know what is “just”.
Myth of the after-life: after you die you get judged depend on what you did on the present life
you either go to heaven or in the inner-earth. After they come back, they choose what to be in
their next life.
The life of a tyrant: he will be always fearsome of others taking over him.
ARISTOTLE: DE ANIMA
* study about the soul (definition) and different parts of the soul and the sensibles.
Relationship between soul & matter (form & matter): example to explain the diff between form
and matter is a house. House is a composite of form and matter. The matter of the house is
mortar, bricks, and whatever you need to build the house. The form is the structure that the
house takes. Compilation of bricks are just a matter but not an actual house. Matter is more
about the shape of the house. Souls are first actuality of life and a naturally organized body; when the soul is present in the
body, there is the capacity of life. Why is the soul the first actuality? Even if you’re sleeping,
you’re not actually thinking (not exercising capacity of thought and your senses), you’re still
Possessing knowledge and actually exercising knowledge: learning the Pythagorean theorem
(1 actuality) and applying/using it (2 actuality). Closing the eyes but not seeing (1 actuality)
and opening the eyes and actually seeing (2 ). nd
Different types of sensibles:
Common sensibles (can be grasped by more than one faculty of senses).
Incidental sensibles (you don’t sense them in themselves; inferential concepts).
Purpose of motion: dog seeing the stick and pursuing the stick; desire and imagination plays a
role (extra sensibles).
ARISTOTLE: NICHO. ETHICS
* study about what is “good”, virtues, doctrine of the mean, action theory, and pleasurable
Highest good is happiness (not a psychological state of happiness). To Aristotle, happiness is
flourishing and living well. Highest good is complete and self-sufficient (pursued for its own
sake, not for something else; once you have happiness