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PHL100Y1 (2)
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PHL100Y Exam Review.doc

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Department
Philosophy
Course
PHL100Y1
Professor
Peter King
Semester
Fall

Description
If philosophy brings happiness its not simpleTo put your belief into question is to take a riskand it hurtsis unsettling its not mere contentmentWhy are you hereThievesBrokersLoversThieves What can I get away with How little can I do Stealing your time my time and the time of the people around youBrokers What can I get out of this What can I get for what I put inLovers The love of wisdom to give without expectation of returnto give of yourself Philosophy Philein Sophia vs philosophy sophistrySocrates distinction between argument for its own sake false wisdom and love of wisdomScole root of school meaning leisure meaning time out of work or time out of timeCOURSE WEBSITE THROUGH PORTALPhilosophy is the system through which we put ourselves into questionIts not going around in circles its spiraling up but you cant se it because your looking downTheres no Nietzsche because Nietzsche makes people crazyEXAM IN DECEMBER DONT DO ANYTHING UNTIL THE DATE IS SETFour papers at 10 percent each term test 20final exam 30 particip 10the books are not the point selfreflexive philos constantly puts itself into questionall philosophy is about whether philosophy is possiblewhat is valid including that questionPlatos dialogues are not a direct report of what happened Socrates and Plato are not the same Other historical sources agree triangulation that these ideas are Socratic Some are clearly Plato others Socratic but theres also lots of grey Dialogue vivid entertaining characters with personalities character or authors viewsRepublic is actually more subtle than it appearsThucydides describes Athenian wreckingcapture of somewhere with an M either you submit to us or we destroy you Account is blunt unapologetic even in describing awful things related to authors nationWhy give reasons when you can win Socrates and Glaucon meeting Polemarchus Adeimantus Niceratus in port at start of Republic Note Glaucon and Adeimantus are Platos brothers and well perceived in the RepublicForcePersuasion philos Convince rather than conquerSeduction when force and persuasion dont work ductleading drawing drawing in in this word Education is drawing out also philosAnother document about Socrates Aristophanes the clouds Socrates appears as comic figure also about the trialSocrates fought in many campaigns with distinctionSocrates was a cobbler by the way a shoemaker He did not teach for moneyOracle at Delphi know thyself inscribed there Socrates goes and has a vision Diotima tells him he is the wisest of the AtheniansWisdom is an attitude about knowledge To realize what you dont knowDoctrina IgnorantiaIrony a gap between seeming and realitySocratic irony claims not to understand the arguments his opponents give Tackles other peoples opinions rather than giving his ownAsking questions in pursuit of questionsDialectic generates new conclusions through conflictSocratic method midwifery of ideasI dont tell people what to think I help them discover what they think and maybe to think better Platos SocratesSteps in Platos reports of Socrates dialogues1Definition philosophical demand for generality rather than specificity def not examples2Definition offered3Failscounterexample foils demand for generality4Second definition offered beefs up universality5Order of priorityPlatos addition6Philosophical definition general category and independent standard not dependant on what an authority says transcendent Euthyphro meets Socrates whos been on trial E is going in to prosecute his own father for murder Father staked slave in ditch overnight slave died E sees it as case of wrongful death as opposed to common belief that slaves are ambulatory furniture E say its pious action being what the gods love his def Soc is it pious because the gods love it or do they love it because its pious Do the gods love something called piety itself Order of priority Interlocuter is chased from the scene fleeing the questionNecessary condition vs sufficient conditionPiraeus main port of Athens Down to Piraeus Socrates has descended from philos city heights to dangerous place of interchangesPolemarchus do you see how many we are force over persuasionCan persuasion ever be a superior force to force Initially answer given is no but Socrates tries to prove the oppositeHow ought I to live What is the life worth living Question of justice is essentially ethicalGreeks had no clear distinction between ethics and politicsCephalusMad masters very glad to be free of sexual desire highlights nature of desire as oppressive here it is a cruel master What is my relationship to my desires Who is in controlAfterlife Pascals wager religious practices start to look like a god ideaNiels Bohr had a horseshoe nailed to his door When questioned Of course I dont believe but it brings good luck whether you believe or not So you might as well do itJ1 Honestydebtfreedomfirst definition of justice rightness the prereflected definitionCounterexample what if a friend is crazy and asks for the weapons lent him But shows that circumstances change even if particular circumstances uncommonJ2 to give to each what he is owed This one is excessively abstract It implies somehow that you have all that is necessary to define who is owed whatA craft for ancient Greeks is not merely utilitarian It serves some important human end from cobbling o medicine to philosophy Greek techne a kind of engagement in serving a human end and to have a certain body of knowledge Word virtue arete excellence includes generosity and swordplayHuman life is an overlapping layering of these craftsTo be good at being human is what it means to be justWhat is the body of knowledge assoc with being just in this abstract definition How could one be good at itJ3 benefit your friends and harm your enemies considered an aristocratic idea in the context of this dialogueTony Soprano is just according to this definitionTelos an end he for the sake of which that orients all actionHow do you know who your friends and enemies are How best to help friendsharm enemiesJ3a Karistocratic even with the friends and enemies defined it is never just to harm people Here he is speaking of within the cityFor Socrates knowledgevirtue and vise versa Akrasia weakness of the will is imperative to Socrates philosophy If you know the right thing you must do it No room for knowing and not doing That just isntThrasymachussophistSophist with enough money on the table they will argue anything This is not just doing philosophy badly it is doing the oppositeJ4 political realist definition Might makes right Power is bottom line in any political orderThrasymachus has a cynical in our sense take on this but it could also be revolutionary Both include scorn of naiveteEverything that is called justice is to the advantage of the stronger those in power get to define justiceFour errors339c Can the stronger ever be in error of what is to their advantage 340bd Do they act on what they believe to be their advantage If what they believe to be to their advantage is what gets defined as justice Thrasymachus might have a point but he denies thisIf they can be in error then there is an independent standard of what makes advantage Cant be to the advantage of the stronger if they are held to an independent standard341a Is ruling a craft But crafts have virtues bodies of knowledge excellence and ENDS goaldirected The point of the craft is a for the sake of which health or for the sheep shepherd Aim of craft is something separate from advantage of craftsperson343d advantage unjust man has advantage over just man He again is admitting the existence of an independent standard of justice He just redefined justice for himself350b knowledge is a goodvirtue that has to tend towards the good Thrys admits requirement of knowledgeIt seems to me that the advantage of the stronger definition belongs to some level other than philosophy precisely those independent standards This definition is political theory or philosophy or social theory or philosophy not the allencompassing pure philosophy that Socrates aims for The interlocutors are speaking on different terms
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