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PHL100Y1 (2)

PHL200Y1 Exam Review

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Peter King

PHL200Final Exam ReviewThales Watermaterial principle of the world earth rests on waterSoul produces motioneven magnets have soulsAnaximander Principle archethe limitless eternal changeless contains all the worldsEarth is cylindrical not resting on anythingbalanced in middle principle of sufficient reasonAnaximenes Airmaterial principle always in motion condenses and rarefies Xenophanes Gradualistknowledge difficult to attain but not impossibleTheologyrational supreme god not anthropomorphic2 material principles earth and waterParmenides Poem has two partsWay of Truth and Way of OpinionCannot think or speak about what is notit does not existOnly one thing exists Monism unchanging spherelikeMelissus Proseversion of Parmenides Way of Truth Also MonistArgument against motionempty space is logically impossible therefore the world is full therefore motion is impossibleWorld extends infinitely in all directionsSense perception is illusoryWhat is must be incorporeal Zeno 40 arguments against motionArgues that plurality is more paradoxical than monismEmpedocles 4 elements love and strife eternal cycle reincarnation nonteleological account of the generation of animalsDemocritus and Leucippus Atoms and void combination and separationAnaxagoras Unlimited number of different things Mind as a causeHeraclitus Firematerial principle rejects cosmogony thinks world always existed everything is in flux unity of opposites the path up is the same as the path downPythagoras Immortality and transmigration of the soulPlatoEuthyphroWhat is holinessInterlocutor EuthyphroSocratic Definition Standard by which to judge whether something is holy or notObjective vs Subjective propertiesIs something holy because loved by the gods holinesssubjective property or loved by the gods because it is holy holinessobjective propertyApologySocrates Defense SpeechInterlocutor briefly Anytas addresses Athenian jurySocratic profession of ignoranceDoes Socrates genuinely try to defend himself alternative penaltymeals at the citys expenseCritoObligations to the StateInterlocutors Crito Laws of AthensSocrates will not escape unless convinced that it is the best thing to doMore important to care for his soul than his bodySpeech of the Laws Persuade or obeyBy living in Athens Socrates implicitly agreed to obey its laws1
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