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Exam Study Guide - Key Terms

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University of Toronto St. George
Peter King

EXAM PREP 2011HobbesSocial Contract TheorySocial institutions are the product of voluntary agreement among free individuals Consent gives the government authority It explains why people are morally obligated at all and what they are obligated to doState of NatureA hypothetical theory it shows that rational being are act in way that only benefits themselvesHow people behave in society without laws or Social authorityResults in a war against all when scarcity existsFactual EgalitarianismReasoning why the war against all would occur because everyone is going for the same thing and because everyone is equal everyone can achieve the same goals creating competitionNatural RightEveryone has the liberty to use any means possible to preserve hisher lifeNatural LawIn a war of all against all a rational person should try achieve Peace whenever possible Lay down right to promote peace Abide by the contractPrisoners Dilemma Game TheoryWhen confronted with a choiceEach person has to reason strategically to act in his own interestHume argues that each person would choose the decision in their best interest and get the dominant outcomeShows incentives in the state of natureDominant OutcomeThe outcome that happens most oftenOptimal OutcomeThe best situation for a rational personAssurance GameGame where you need assurance because one will usually defect based on the dominant outcome therefore it is necessary to have government control in order to have assurance and achieve the optimal outcome Stag Rabbit ExampleHobbes vs the FooleHobbess Foole revives Glaucons challenge 144 Why keep agreements when it seems to be to ones advantage to break them This is of course the key worry in overcoming a Prisoners Dilemma or even in ensuring cooperation in an Assurance Game Renouncing vs Transferring of RightsGetting rid of your rights Giving the right to someone specific Natural Person vs Artificial PersonSingular PersonArtificial is an institution or establishmentAuthor vs ActorActor is the person who preforms the actionAuthor is the person or penis who authorizes the action or is responsible for itFeatures of the Sovereign PowerAn agent authorized by each individual in the commonwealth giving authorization to them to act in their name the transferring of rights to a natural or artificial personCant challenge their actions because each action of the sovereign power is an action of all individualsUndivided Absolute and PerpetualInalienable and Nontransferable rightsA right that is not transferable The right to self defense Cant incriminate yourself Right to refuse involuntary conscriptionNo Fault Theory of ConflictThe government can ask you do break one of your inalienable rights however you have the right to say no neither party is wrong it is just a conflictHumeTheory of Ideas Impressions vs Ideas Simple and ComplexTheory of Ideas 1All perceptions are either a impressions or b ideasa and b can be simple in itself or be a complex composite of ideas2Sensing and sentiment produce only impressions whereas thinking only produces ideas or penises3All ideas are copies of impressionsCopy Principle Complex idea are composed of simple ideas which are fainter copies of the simple impressions Through senses from which they are ultimately derived to which they correspond and exactly resemble Gold MountainGold Mountain Big Penis The Missing Shade of Blue ObjectionHume claims someone could 1 recognize that a shade was missing and then 2 form the corresponding idea of the missing shadeRelation of Ideas A prioriAnalyticnecessaryoperations of thought without dependence on what is anywhere existent in the universe it is not dependant on experienceMatters of Fact A posterioriSyntheticContingent
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