Platos point test prep.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Michael Adams

Thrasymachus begins by defending a "might makes right" view of justice. Half way through his exchange with Socrates, however, he shifts his ground somewhat. Where does this shift lead him?
  Thrasymachus at first argued that justice is within the power of the strongest. Plato plays his reasoning tricks and turns him away from the idea that unjust people live better than just people. What is the moral/message of the Ring of Gyges story? What would you do with a Ring of Gyges?  The ring of Gypses allows anyone to do anything with it. It’s a story about a Sheppard that finds the ring and uses it to manipulate the queen and become a king since it has invisible powers. The moral of the story is that the just person would use the ring if he thought he would not be punished. What is the ―city of pigs‖ and why does Socrates say is the ―true‖ city? Should we take him seriously?  The ideas given by Plato through Socrates were seen as so impossible that it would be like a City of pigs. The city described in Plato’s arguments depicts people as in having no feelings and no desires. Socrates calls it a healthy city while Glaucon calls it the city of pigs. Since there is no luxury, culture etc. What are the social and political implications of the "Phoenician story" about citizens being "fashioned and nurtured inside the earth‖?  Plato’s idea that people are fashioned and nurture inside the earth, came from the earth, and so they should be loyal to the land where they were born and treated like a mother or father.  People are in a brotherhood and become just in society.  People are born out of a certain metal and thus naturally gifted to do something specific.The “noble lie” gives a reason for the citizen to not only feel a certain loyalty and love for the state, but to also accept the society that Plato„s three class hierarchy constructs.  A lie to make citizens content with their roles in society since philosophy cannot necessary gets to them.  The selection of those specific roles is from God.  Necessary for the republic to function. Plato wants everybody happy. What are the four virtues of the State in Plato?  Wisdom (good judgment), courage (protect against fears and preserve), moderation (control of desires and pleasures), and justice (doing your own work and not meddling with others) maintain the state. What are the parts of the soul and their corresponding virtues?  1. Appetitive - desires , interests both necessary and unnecessary. MODERATION 2. Rational - discerns true and false. WISDOM 3. Spirited - enforces the rational part of the soul. COURAGE How does Plato define justice in the end? Justice is defined as all parts performing their own function and not meddling in other parts. Therefore justice is all parts being in harmony. What are the stages of Plato's theory of knowledge. 1.first segment of the line- illusions 2. the second stage is beliefs about physical things and practical sciences. 3. The third stage is mathematical reasoning and theoretical sciences. 4.Philosophy, knowing the forms in its truest sense.What is the meaning of the Myth of Err? Why is it included?  Myth of err may be seen as a “Noble lie”  Myth of err can mean what the story says, that we come back to life and the way we conduct ourselves in this life will determine what happens in the next life.  It‟s a myth that people will be given an option to choose which way of life they will have. Based on previous knowledge you would pick right. Aristotle: What are the origins of political society?  Communities coming together for the sake of goodness or achieving a certain good. Man as a political Animal  Men seen as a creature that needs politics, living in a polis to surv
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