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Phil Exam Review.docx

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Peter King

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Phil Exam Review Hobbes - Social contract - State of nature o War o Scarcity o Diffidence o Glory - Fundamental natural right o Natural right to all things o Agree to lay down our rights o Common power to enforce contracts  Author sovereign to create common power and sovereign has absolute undivided power  We author sovereigns actions, so he can never be wrong  Through the social contract we transfer our rights to the sovereign  Sovereign = above law  o Prisoners dilemma Kant - Deontology o The right or obligatory act - Good will o Do something in good way o Acting from duty - Duty/inclination - Maxim- must be universal, cannot be controversial - Duty requires us to o Categorical imperative  Universal law  Law of nature – we cannot will something that will be impossible  Everyone treated as an end in themselves, not just a mean  Kingdom of ends  KNOW THE FOUR EXAMPLES - Freedom of determinism o Cannot know if we are free Sartre - Existence proceeds essence - Bad faith - Authenticity - Subjectivity - the other - different in no exit and what they represent - atheism - abandonment - talk about symbolism, use his terms - REREAD Hume - Problem of induction o Casual reasoning = based on experience always  Problem = uniformity of nature principle – reasoning is circular o Constant conjunction = A an
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