lect 2 principles and theories.docx

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University of Toronto St. George

Moral Principles  Explain everyday intuitions Beneficence  should help people  non malaficence (avoid intentionally causing harm)  active beneficent – “supererogatory” (requires actively promoting wellbeing of others) Utility  should aim to produce the greatest net balance of benefit over harm  ideas of beneficence, maximize benefit, and aggregation Autonomy  one’s capacity for self determination  there’s something morally good about accepting autonomy in others  each of us has a power to make choices for ourselves  rational persons should be able to make self choices freely and other people should not interfere with it even if the choice is disagreed upon  forbids treating one against their will  can also be violated through deception (ex: through lying) and fraud  the most justified interference with autonomy when trying to prevent harm in others  weak paternalism also justified at some cases: paternalistic interventions aimed at someone whose autonomy is diminished (ex: one under drug influence; mentally ill)  strong paternalism: interference of one’s autonomy even if it is fully intact Justice  different from other principles because it’s formal (tell us how we should do things) rather than substantial (tell us what we ought to do)  should treat like cases alike (what
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