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The Republic Exam Notes.docx

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The Republic Exam Notes Book 1 Sets out to answer 2 questions: o What is justice? o Why should one be just (is there a point to one being a good person?)  Needs to show the beneficial aspect of justice  Cephalus states that the burden of old age is eased by wealth o Question: what is the value of being rich?  Cephalus: If you are rich it is easier to be a good person  Money doesn’t make you happy per se, it makes it easier to be "good" (ie. Be just by paying ones taxes)  This good is merely an instance of justice but it is deficient in respect to justice  Idea of giving a crazed nam back his weapon because it is the honest thing to do ---> not necessarily just though o Polemarchus (Cephalus's son) inherets his father's argument  On justice: helping your fiends and harming your enemies ( a traditional defn. of justice)  How is the argument inhereted? Both reveolve around the idea of rendering to each what is owed to them  However, we are fallible in our judgement of what makes a person good or bad  Harming your enemies in no way betters them, thus harming your enemies is not necessarily good  Human justice is a virtue, harming an enemy harms their virtue, thus "harmed people become more unjust"  Never just to harm anyone (recal Citro) o Thrasymachus  Justice is what is advantageous to the stonger  Tries to delegitimize justice ---> no benefit to the just to be just  What is advantageous to the established rule  Based on nature (physus: the study of nature)  Justice by nature as opposed to nomos justice (justice based on customs, beliefs and conventions)  Posits that man made justice (nomos justice) is unnatural and created by human desires  If one is stronger and just (in the nomos case) you are ittational  The rational thing would be, if you can attain more, you go for it  Idea of restricting yourself by acting just, viewed as irrational  Injustice as a virtue [349]  Values are subverted, justice is ignoble, for the simple minded and irrational  Socrates rebutal:  Politics is not comparable to nature  Ebery expertise works for the advantages of others (is. Doctors do not cure for their own advantage)  Thrasymachus  "injustice, on a large enough scale, is stonger, freer, and more masterful than justice"  Idea of sheep and shepard (CHECK TEXT)  Socrates posits the idea that we all want the knowledge of something  To want more knowledge than someone who is an expert in the field (someone who knows the form) is irrational and injust  Idea of health, we don’t want more health, we just want to be health o We end up without a clear view of what justice is  Socrates must prove that justice is something good and desirable Book II Glaucon and Adeimantus are not thoroughly convinced  Glaucon states that all that is good can be divided into 3 classes: o Things are good in themselves  Things that we desire for their own sake (i.e. joy) o Things are good for their consequences  "highest class"  Things that we desire for their own sake and what they can do for us (i.e. knowledge, health, sight…) o Things that are good only in the sake of something else (ex, exercise)  Things we desire only for their consequences  Wants to know where justice would fall under these three circumstances o Glaucon posits that most people place justice as a type of good that is only good for its consequences  Idea that justice stems from human weakness, a sort of social contract with each other to be just to one another  Not practices for its own sake, but rather is practiced out of fear  The ring of Gyges  Idea of a just man who is given a ring of invisibility  Once in possession of this ring, he can act as he pleases and thus participates in the unjust (materialistic, power-hungry, erotic urges)  Idea of people only acting just because they fear the consequences  Argues that the perfectly unjust life is more pleasant than the just life  Gives an example of two men, and unjust man, who indulges in all of his urges and is honored/rewarded with wealth, and a just man (like socrated himself upon execution) who is scorned and wretched o Socrates needs to show that justice is good in itself and for its consequences ---> that it belongs to the highest order of good  Socrates states that there are two types of justice o The justice belonging to the city or state o The justice belonging to the individual  Leads to the construction of a just state so that we are able to see the bigger picture  Parallels between justice of the man and the city  Constitution of the city and the soul  Construction of the minimal state: o Disision of labour based on earlier notion "to each what is owed"  Idea that human beings have natural inclinations that should be fufilled  Lovers of the land become farmers etc. o Just city filled with producers ---> a healthy city that is governed only by necessary desires o Glaucon refers to this city as the "City of Pigs"  Unfit for the sophistication of Athens; satisfies animalistic desires but not human desires  Posits a luxurious city:  Socrates replies that this is a feverous city  City of pigs doesn’t require money and wealth, the luxurious city does  Leads to war, antibodies are thus needed to keep the "fever" in check  Police the city and protect them from outsiders  Needs the warrior (guardian) class  Members of the guardian class must be carefully selected  "their nature is suited to the very practice" Book III  Outlines the third class of people in the just city-the rulers o Earlier two classes are as follows, the producers and the guardian class  Class of rulers taken from the guardian class  The "best" of the guardian class is chosen as rulers, and are called guardians  The remaining are the auxiliaries  They are the supporters of the guardian classes' "conviction"  Idea of the best of the guardian class is supposed to become the guardians of the city  Have the knowledge necessary to rule  Have shown an "inclination throughout their entire lives to do what they belive to be advantageous for the city, and most unwilling to do the opposite" [412d]  In order to choose the guardian class, they would need to be observed at every stage of their lives  Need to be tested, make sure that they can overcome hardships and are not easily decieved  Are without purities  In order to justify the division of classes to the city, a noble lie will be presented...myth of the metals  Idea that everyone was born out of the earth...each type of person has a mixed metal in their soul  Gold: guardian class  Silver: auxiliaries  Bronze/iron: producers  Rigidity between classes but not between auxiliary can be born to a producer, they will be taken at birth (young age) and raised as such  Guardian class is not allowed to deal with actual gold/ silver to save them from corruption Book IV  Division of the kallipolis (city) into three classes, all of which represent different virtues of the city o Guardian class: Wisdom  Idea that the city is wise because of the guardians  Guardians have knowledge about the city as a whole, and, "how its relations and its relations with other cities will be the best possible" [428d]  City is divided like nature, the guardian class, the smallest class has the knowledge that can be considered wisdom  Their wisdom becomes the city's virtue o Auxiliaries: Courage  Idea that courage is a kind of preservation  Preservation of law o Producers: Temperance  Kind of spread out within the city  Harmony between who should rule the city and their part in supressing appetites that not neccesary  Justice is the state of affairs such that each part of the state in content with their roles o Idea that the goal of the city is "not to make any one group of the citizens outstandingly happy at the expense of others. But to make everyone as happy as nature allows"  Idea that the human soul in analogous to the city o We need to show that the divisions of the soul are "proportionate" to parts of the state, thus three parts of the soul  Rational part of the soul that lusts after the truth  Spirited part of the soul that lusts after honor  Appetitive part of the soul that lusts for everything else  Existence of epithema (appetites) allows us to hypothesize that there is a part of the soul that creates desires o one can evaluate and make judgements about these appetites Can desire x and not x   If you have an appetite for x and an appetite for not x, and you can resist x, then this "power" allows you to choose must be accounted for  There must be a part of the soul separate from epithema that is instead rational  Allows for two parts of the soul, one appetitive and the other rational  Appetites viewed as the irrational part of the soul  To explain the third part of the soul, Socrates presents the story of Liantios: o Walks past the wall of a city where an execution had recently taken place  He has an curious desire (appetite) to gaze upon the corpses, but at the same time, the rational part of the soul allows his to desire at the same time not to look at them because he knows it is distasteful  He finally gives in to his desires and proclaims "feast your wretched eyes"  Feels ashamed of himself for giving in  Feeling of self loathing is neither a part of the rational soul, nor is an appetite  Calls for a third part of the soul with emotional capacity  Regarded to as "spirit"  Idea of harmony within the soul o Idea of "ruling" within the soul  Idea of which ever part of the soul "rules" decides what the soul should pursue  Example, a soul ruled by spirit craves honor, a soul ruled by epithema craves to fulfill its desires  In a just soul, the soul is geared towards fulfilling whatever knowledge-loving desires reason produces  Idea that justice is the result of the structure of the soul o A person whose soul is governed correctly naturally gears towards what is just o A just soul is a healthy soul...thus justice should be desired for the health of the soul Book V  Makes two radical claims: o Children should be raised by the city and not by their biological parents o Men and women with the same natural abilities should receive the same training and taking on the same political roles  Acknowledges that men and women have many different natural abilities, he believes that with regards to the soul, women fall along the same natural lines as men  Idea that some are appetitive, spirited, and rational  Still believes than women are inferior to men in all ways, but a guardian women wouldn’t be inferior to an auxiliary male  Marriage and intercourse will only take place at certain times throughout the year (festivals) o Marriages will be arranged  The most admirable of men/women may have multiple pairings in one festival  Children will be taken from their parents and raised together so they will not know whose parents are who  If guardians have intercourse outside of the permitted time, the child produced must be killed o Reasoning behind this is to prevent familial loyalty Trying to prevent divided loyalties, city is unified because it shares the same views   Arranged marriages do not pertain to the producing class (?) o Their patriotism doesn’t matter
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