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PHLB31 Midterm Notes

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University of Toronto St. George
Bradd Hart

Thales - Reportedly studied astronomy, geometry, and engineering - Basic stuff was water – this could mean that everything comes from or really is water in one form or another - Soul produces motion and that magnetic lodestone has soul because it causes iron to move Anaximander - Pupil of Thales. First person to construct map of the world and to have predicted an earthquake - Originating stuff of the cosmos something indefinite or boundless (apeiron in Greek: “infinite”) – this indefinite stuff is moving, directive of other things, and eternal; thus it qualifies as divine - Changes in the world are ordered – lawlike forces guaranteeing the orderly processes of change between opposites - If the emergence of the world consists in the division of matter, then the decline of it consists in dissolution of these elements - Matter is eternal and indestructible Anaximenes - Pupil of Anaximander. Gave explanations of all sorts of meteorological and other natural phenomena - There is a single originative stuff aer (dense air) that is indefinite enough to give rise to things in the cosmos - Condensation and rarefaction as processes that transform aer and other stuffs of the cosmos Heraclitus of Ephesus - Held cosmological views, interested in exploring questions about knowledge, the soul, and the human condition - Single divine law controls and steers the cosmos (he calls this the logos – account/thing/word) - Treating the logos as the divine law of the cosmos, attempts to bridge gap between divine and human knowledge - Understanding how all things form a unity is a fundamental part of the necessary insight - Despite unceasing change in the cosmos, there is an unchanging principle – logos – that governs and explains these changes - “Everything is in flux” – everything is changing, nothing remains as it is - World as a whole is eternal – infinite in time, space, and endless Parmenides of Elea - Pupil of Xenophanes. Interested in the metaphysical and epistemological questions, first to see the importance of metatheoretical questions about philosophical theories themselves, and to provide arguments for his claims - Genuine thought and knowledge can only be about what-is, for what-is-not is literally unsayable and unthinkable Sun, Line and Cave - Point of the sun is to contrast the visible and intelligible realms, which also provides light required by the eye to gain access to the physical world - Correspo
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