Study Guides (238,408)
Canada (115,131)
Philosophy (249)
PHL200Y1 (14)

Midterm Exam Study Notes

11 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto St. George
Jennifer Whiting

PHL200 December Midterm Exam Notes ApologyCrito: death of Socrates (The Apology is Platos version of Socrates speech made at his own trial) should he escape? Socrates believed that the only way to harm him was to take away his virtue (harm his state of soul) which no one can do. In fact, by unjustly putting him to death they are only hurting their own states of soul. Elenchus: reputation examination Sophists: argued both sides of a question - first known teachers because they charged a fee (however this earned them a bad reputation) Orators (persuasion): making weaker or worse arguments appear stronger and better right argument: speak whats just wrong argument: speak the opposite and not be ashamed Dialogues: elentic: refutational aporetic: puzzle Laches: the search for the universal definition of the nature of courage Laches was a man of action who believed that courage is a sort of endurance of the soul, courage is wise endurance Nicias was a man of thought who believed that courage is some kind of wisdom, courage is knowledge of the fearful and hopeful in war and in every other situation the dialogue ends in a stalemate with each Laches, Nicias, and Socrates arguments being defeated by the others (aporetic ending the true definition of courage is a compromise of mixed elements you cannot be courageous if you do not what it really is and cannot articulate it (therefore an animal cannot be courageous) Induction: arguing from analogy a mode of reasoning (however it is a dangerous mode of reasoning because some people may assume incorrect things) eg. A farmer has only white sheep and therefore assumes that all sheep are white you start off arguing about particulars (specific things or individuals) and move on to universals (general thingsconcepts) Universal definition (forms): - having a definition that is irrefutable is a sign of knowledge - you cannot be something if you cannot articulate it as a universal definition MATERIALISTS: MONISTS VS. PLURALISTS Monists: Thales: water Anaximander: the indefinite (apeiron) Anaximenes: air Anaximenes was the only one to give some account to his concept of air being the basis of everything. He believed it was the variation in temperature and density that made air appear as so many different things when really they were all made of the same basic thing. Pluralists: Anaxagoras: all things in existence are made of the same mixture; they just get separated and combined differently. Anything that we see or deal with is real, its a matter of things recombining and emerging into visibility in just the right way. Everything is mixed into everything; its a matter of separation and combination. The reality is that what really exists never changes; the 4 elements are constantly mixing and combining in different ways in repetitive cycles. There is no such thing as coming to be and perishing. Empedocles: like Anaxagoras believed in all things being composed of the same 4 elements, however he also introduced the idea of love and strife being the cause of why things combine and separate, they work in a cycle where sometimes love is more dominant and sometimes strife is more dominant. It is the ratios of elements that affect what we are seeing, we know what the material matter of everything is, but what separates each mixture from another is the ratio. Democritus: an atomist that believed that everyone had a different view on different things, everyone has different experiences and therefore there would be conflicting views. He thought that the nature of eternal things consists in small substance, limitless in quantity. The differences that account for change are: shape, colour, and position. All things are atoms, there is nothing else, they just appear in different forms. Difference between Anaxagoras and Empedocles: Anaxagoras believed that everything is made of everything (homoiomeros) whereas Empedocles believed that everything was made up of some combination of the 4 elements (earth, air, fire, water) through love and strife. Anaxagoras makes the principles infinite, both the uniform parts and the opposites, whereas Empedocles makes them only the so called elements. Atomists: Leucippus and Democritus Xenophanes:
More Less

Related notes for PHL200Y1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.