January-April Lecture Study Notes for Final Exam

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University of Toronto St. George
Jennifer Whiting

PHL200 January-April final exam notes Parmenides: The all is one Platos self critic of his theory of forms with Parmenides and Zeno Plato is subjecting his theory of Forms to criticism 129a eidos (form) of likeness and unlikeness Co-presence of opposites: something can be both like and unlike (eg. tallness and shortness) Tallness itself cannot be both tall and short, therefore, a form cannot have a co-presence of opposites 2 possibilities for the Forms: a) things we can grasp or b) the properties that reside in these things Third Man Argument: 1. One over many assumption if there exists a plurality of F things, then there is some one thing, predicated of all, in virtue of which they are all [called] F 2. Self-predication assumption what is predicated of a plurality of F things is itself F 3. Non-identity assumption what is predicated of a plurality of things is always different from that of which it is predicated 2 major ways in which Plato and Aristotle differ: Metaphysics and Conception of Forms The Forms act as causal accounts for why a person has a certain property (tall, short, beautiful, intelligent, etc.) Aristotles solution to Platos theory of Forms: The Categories The Categories listed in chapter 4: SUBSTANCE: what is it? QUANTITY: how much? QUALITY: what is it like? RELATIVE: double, half, larger WHERE: in the market-place WHEN: yesterday, last year BEING IN A POSITION: is lying, is sitting HAVING: has shoes on ACTING ON: cutting, burning BEING AFFECTED: being cut, being burned The categories are not just words (linguistic) but also ontological (concerned with existence) Example. SAID OF NOT SAID OF (essential) (accidental) IN Knowledge An individual grammatical (non-substance) knowledge NOT IN Man An individual man www.notesolution.com (substance) 2 ways of predication: All of the SAID OF predications are ways of classifying things, whereas IN predications characterize things (what things are like) Differentials: e.g. footed 2 footed, 4 footed - can be used as predications Aristotle believes that neither the name or definition can be predicated - definitions cannot be perceived as the same for all names (e.g. animal being applied to a man vs. a horse) 2 types of distinction: non-substance vs. substance & universals vs. particulars Primary substances cannot exist without secondary substances, they go hand in hand in an important way each of these things meaning secondary substances **Metaphysics 139a [Our distinction between actuality and potentiality explains why universals cannot be substances] For if no substance can be composed of universals (because a universal signifies this sort of thing, not a this) and if no substance can be composed of substances actually present in it, then it follows that every substance will be incomposite, so that none will have any account. nothing that belongs universally is not a substance reflects a change in views from the categories (secondary substance) - contrast between a this and a this sort of thing - it refers to what is predicated in common Aristotle denies self predication for things like man, horse, dog, etc. if there are such things - they are a different kind of being When viewing the chart: the way columns relate to one another is to be in something and the way something in a column relates to something underneath it in another row is to be said of something Primary substances (a this) cannot be in or said of anything - they are a direct answer to the question ti esti? (what is it?) - primary substances always belong to secondary substances sort of thing - when we talk about man in general we are talking about a this The distinction between primary and secondary substances is parallel to the distinction between this and this sort of thing Distinction between deduction and demonstration: PRIOR ANALYTICS: syllogism deduction an argument in which certain things assume something different from these things being POSTERIOR ANALYTICS: apodeixis demonstration www.notesolution.com
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