Later Medieval Philosophy Short answers

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Deborah Black

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Sketch briefly Bonaventure's theory of seminal reasons, indicating the main philosophical and theological problems that the theory is meant to solve (2) Bonaventure’s seminal reasons Bonaventure contributes seminal reasons to explain the origin of new beings in the universe The origin of new beings is a problem because for Bonaventure, all existence is attributed to God, who created it and holds it in existence by His will Because the world is so radically contingent upon God’ will, only God can impart form unto matter All secondary sources do is give a new mode of being to a form already created in matter How then is God completely responsible for the emergence of these new beings? Seminal reasons: seeds principles Matter contains within it active principles like seeds A chunk of matter has its own possibility of what it can become How did God create all these things at first, yet they turned to different things If you have dirt, they are active principle that it can turn into plants Nobody needs to do anything to the matter. It can become something on its own Seed can turn into a plant on its own without another person imposing an action Aquinas says we have to slap a form onto the matter If you have dirt, you melt it into glass God puts form on matter Anaxagoras thought the structure was actually in the matter Contradiction: it would contain the idea of diamond and non-diamond Bonaventure: there is a potentiality of the structure inside the matter In what sense does Aquinas hold that God's existence is self-evident? Briefly explain Aquinas' reasoning in support of his position and explain why it requires Aquinas to offer proofs for the existence of God (4) Aquinas’ self evidence of God There are two kinds of SE SE in itself If you are a brilliant physicist, you can find E=MC2 If you understand all, then the equation is SE But if I am not good at Physics, then it is not SE It is SE in itself, but not to me SE to us 1 + 1 = 2 I can understand this, and it is therefore SE Aquinas thinks the proposition God exists is SE in itself, but not in the human intellect If we could understand what the term God means, then it would come obviously that God exists The only who can see this SE is angelic intellects We have to go through long arduous arguments The consequence of Aquinas’ rejection of the SE of God to us is his many teleological arguments, where he starts with those things that are physically SE (world is in motion, existence of degree, and etc) in order to demonstrate the existence of God. Another consequence of this rejection is the rejection of ontological arguments for God Why, according to Aquinas, does the human intellect require phantasms or sense images in order to acquire and even to exercise knowledge? (Your answer should refer both to the nature of the human intellect and to the nature of the objects that it knows) (5) What is an intelligible species according to Aquinas, that is, what is its function in human knowledge and how is it acquired? According to Aquinas, why do we need phantasms or sense images as well as intelligible species to exercise our knowledge? (ii) Aquinas on abstraction Intellect is immaterial All the things we see are particular and material How is it that those material things impacts us to make us have thoughts in the immaterial mind The outside material things give us sense impressions The imagination takes those sense and forms them into wholes, which is a phantasm When we get a phantasm, we are one degree away from reality We just have the image of the forms Next, the intellect, which has both passive and agent faculties, comes into play Our agent intellect abstracts the characteristics of the phantasm The agent is like an x ray machine It pulls out the universal form (intelligible species) and slaps it onto the passive intellect The universal form can represent any singular example of that form Then after the agent puts the intelligible species onto the passive intellect, the passive intellect does two things It apprehends essences from sensible things and forms concepts of them I
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