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Final Examination Study Sheet (short answers only) revised.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Jim John

Final Examination Study SheetYour exam will be in two partsThe first part will feature five short answer questionsEach will be worth 10 pointsThe second part will feature three essay questionsYou will have to choose two of the three and each short essay you write will be worth 25 pointsShort Answer Preparation Five of these eight short answer questions will be on your exam1What is the circularity objection to Lockes theory of personal identity over time either L1 or L2 L1 of Lockes theory of personal identity over time states that a person existing at one time is the same person at a later time if and only if the later person is able to remember the same events experienced by the earlier person continuous memory The circularity objection to Lockes theory of personal identity over time criticizes that Lockes memory criterion for personal identity presupposes personal identity because it takes first person memories into account For example I remember eating ice cream yesterday presupposes you as an I someone with identity and it is this very first person memory that is supposed to act as a criterion for personal identity under L1 and L22What according to Nagel are the five possibilities compatible with the brain bisection dataWhat does Nagel think is wrong with each of these possibilities Brain bisection occurs when the corpus callosum is cut separating the left and right hemispheres from each other Data shows that patients cannot create the word for the object seen with the right hemisphere because language is in the left hemisphere but will smile if their guess is right Many people take this as evidence of 2 streams of consciousness First possibility The patients have a mind associated with the left hemisphere and neither a mind nor any mental activity associated with the nonverbal right hemisphere Second possibility The patients have a mind associated with the left hemisphere Associated with the nonverbal right hemisphere are episodes of mental activity not associated with any distinct mind PROBLEM WITH 1 AND 2 Suppose the left hemisphere failed We would have no difficulty in ascribing both a nonverbal mind and a nonverbal mental activity to the right hemispheres activities If the left went bad the right would still be there rational behavior could still exist just not with verbal behavior Third possibility The patients have 2 minds one associated with the left hemisphere which can speak and write and another associated with the right hemisphere which can neither speak nor write PROBLEM WITH 3 How can there be 2 minds when the two hemispheres are so well integrated in everyday contexts Fourth possibility The patients have a single mind whose contents derive from both hemispheres in a disassociated way PROBLEM WITH 4 It is extremely difficult to conceive of what it is like to be a being with such a disassociated mind
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