Study Guides (238,599)
Canada (115,242)
Philosophy (249)
PHL243H1 (10)
De Sousa (1)

PHL243 Final Exam Notes.docx

15 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto St. George
De Sousa

What is special about philosophical questions, as opposed to scientific or historical questions? - Philosophy o Aims at changing vision of world by argument o Can exploit human nature o Ever changing vision and argument o Rational argument (don’t include authority, tradition or faith) o Change what we see by means of language  Like science  Proceeds by argument and is always open to refutation (central attitude skeptical)  Unlike science  No fix definitive methods for resolving problems  Always trying to find the same, but as soon as it succeeds it becomes science - Historical o Answered through the study of texts and literature o Kind of factual, unchanging role When distinguished from sex, what does the term gender refer to? Is the distinction clear? Why might one want (as Roughgarden does) to speak only of gender? - Sex o Biological o Male and female o Not all living things have 2 sexes o The Five Sexes (or more) – Sterling  Male: testes and penis  Female: ovaries and vagina  True Hermaphrodite: 1 testes and 1 ovary  Merm: testes, some female genitalia, no ovaries  Ferm: ovaries, some male genitalia no testes - Gender o Psycho-social o Man and woman (masculine and feminine)  Qualities that determine whether an individual is more masculine or feminine in society they reside in (severity in these qualities change over time/not universal) o Guided by stereotypes (dictate what people see or don’t see) (culturally variable)  Society changes as the norms that govern gender also changing o 2 genders are founded on 2 sexes o Gender is created through the philosophical view of essentialism  Core of every object there are specific traits and characteristics that without, the object would no longer be that object o Factors Relevant to Gender Only  Social Roles (public private, partnership, child raising, imposed by environment and culture)  Gender Identity (determined at a young age, independent of other factors)  Sexual Orientation (not tied to other factors) What is Roughgarden’s most important contention in the passage you read from her? - What is the relation of reproduction to sex (necessary? sufficient? morally? required?)? - What is sex o Primitive from is recreational among bacteria o Single cell organism swap genes without reproduction - Bacteria do not use sex to reproduce (reproductive sex is rare) - Recreational sex o 1 cell gets something it needs from another - System of specialization - Moment of conception you are single cell zygote - Division of Labour : sex cells get segregated from other cells that keep your body alive - Sexual reproduction best way for reproducing specialization (complex cellular organisms) - Sex cells essential in the sense that function is to preserve heritage What is the moral philosophy call Utilitarianism? How does it differ from Deontology, from Natural Law Theory, and from Virtue Theory? - Utilitarianism o An act is good as it promotes happiness and avoids harm for the greatest number of people o Every person’s pain and pleasures count equally o Happiness = pleasure – pain o Moral rules are rules of thumb most likely to promote happiness o No specifically sexual morality, only an application to sex of principles of utility o Avoidance of harmful consequences (infringe autonomy) - Differ from Deontology o U: sex and its utility relevant to pleasure and pain of all individuals (its usefulness and ability to provide least amount of harm for everyone) o D: does not take into account the pleasure and pain of all individuals (fungible) - Differ from Natural Law o U: looks to the consequences (whether provide greatest amount of pleasure or not) o N: not interested whether consequences are good or bad, only whether processes are natural - Differ from Virtue o U: promotes utility to the greatest extent (usefulness to the greatest extent) o V: promotes thriving in accordance with human nature (rational and social nature), appropriate emotions In philosophy, what does it mean to “beg the question”? Give an example. - Have to assume the conclusion of an argument - A type of circular reasoning - The conclusion that is being attempted to prove is included in the initial premise of the an argument - Begging the question employs fallacies o Fallacy – a mistaken belief based on an unsound argument - Example o Women and men’s equal but they should not be allowed in the Marines. That is because a Marine is and should be a man. What are the main views expressed in the Symposium about the nature of erotic love - Love between old man and young boy - Old is the pursuer and the young is the submissive - Phaedrus o Praise love as a worshiped god o Love makes you act well, be the best person you can be in the face of love, don’t want to be seen as acting badly by a lover o Love makes you want to sacrifice yourself o It’s better to love than to be loved (loving makes you a better person loving = motivation) - Pausanias o Phaedrus left out the bad stuff o Loving as a single end/goal o Acting well so that you are more loveable, trying to mislead, deceive/manipulate a person you love, not acting yourself, illegitimate love o Love is focused on pleasure and advantage - Eryximachus o Physiology of love o There are healthy and unhealthy urges o Within the body, love is a principle that reconciles opposites o Yin Yang model of complementary o Empedocles: love and strife the two elements that combines in different forms of the four elements to make up the world - Aristophes o Origin myth, explains longing for specific person o Three original kinds of being (male, female, hermaphrodite) all spherical in shape o Zeus split them in two, left each half yearning for other, knowing something is missing, wanted to be rolled into one o Desire as recollection (Meno paradox – prior knowledge that you recollect/come to know) - Socrates o Prove he is not great o Love is a species of desire (desire what you lack – can’t long for something you have) o Desire as crucial component of love (desire aimed at something that doesn’t exist) o To feel desire for someone can lead to certain feel for possession o Love is of the beautiful therefore love is also a philosopher/lover of wisdom o Love becomes identifies with philosophy itself and not having what you want o Love is wanting the good but everyone wants what is good o Then want to possess the good forever all men will then want immortality together with good: love is immortality o Is love one then love all because many are the same (really love beauty not the person) - Alcibiades o Love is really of the individual (its Socrates that he is in love with) o Seduced by powers of Socrates intellect and morals, bypassing physical beauty o Socrates doesn’t desire Alcibiades therefore can be said that he doesn’t lack beauty because if he did lack would desire Alcibiades Define the Puritan Lawrentian (or Inverted Puritan) and Pansexual models of the place of sex in the human person? - Lawrentian o Judging an impulse on its origins rather than its consequences o An inversion of the classical model : only your animal nature is uncorrupted o If an act of state of mind has its origin in the best or most real part of the self, it is ''pure'', otherwise it is polluted o To be morally pure is to follow the higher agency which that never happens to be - Pansexual o Erotic sex and philosophy are one and the same because erotic sex is at the core of all motivation in the person as a whole o Plato, Freud : all motivation ultimately comes from Eros (god of love, Aphrodite) o Matter of transforming it into something higher o Seen in fiction and art In the passage you read from Aquinas, what is the role of the idea of “natural function”? How does it relate to the ban on adultery, homosexuality, incest, and masturbation? - According to Aquinas, in order to live well, we must follow nature (what is natural is a good thing) (god plays a minimal role) - When applied to sex – natural function of sex is procreation (creating, upbringing, any other use of sexual organs is a misuse and thus a sin) - Only permissible use of something is for its natural end (no organ has more than one natural function) (what it’s designed to do – presupposes there was an intelligent designer meant to make it what it is – Aquinas believes it was god, god still a small part) - Teleology : everything has its own end (derived from Aristotle – looks at nature to decide what is supposed to happen) - Adultery o If woman is under authority of husband, it is adultery o Outside of marriage - Homosexuality o Hindering begetting of children o Not between a man and a woman o No upbringing of a child - Incest o Misuse of a woman and authority of which woman is placed o Even though it doesn’t violate PIVMO o Not for the right reason … to procreate - Masturbation o No betting of children o Not between two heterosexuals o Worse than rape because no PIVMO What does Kant see as the particular virtues of marriage in relation to sexual relations? - Marriage removes the issue of objectification that occurs (according to Kant) during sex outside the contract of marriage - Transfer their rights to another person when they marry that other person regain their rights back: mutual exchange - Sexual love makes a person become an object of appetite because pleasures are being fulfilled and then just tossed aside - Degradation of human nature - Once some used by another, person becomes a thing and can be treated and used by everyone - Sexuality not an inclination for another human being as such, but an inclination for sex with another person, it degrades human nature because desire is satisfied through sex - Brings us to a level near animals - A man is not his own property and cannot do what he wants with his own body at his own will - If I have a right to a person, then I have the right to the whole of the person not just a part - This only happens in marriage though - Marriage is a life-long union of 2 persons of opposite sex for reciprocal possession of their sexual facilities What is “Essentialism”? And what in particular might be meant by “essential feminism”? - Essentialism states that certain properties are hared universally by a group o Certain characteristics that make them what they are o Gender essentialism  Believes there is an essence of maleness and masculinity and of femaleness and femininity  Ignores individual differences and tries to find the common features of each gender o Essentialist Feminists  Believe they are superior and are radically different from men because women are essentially women and men and are essentially men  Feminism is Anti-Essentialism  Not to dent there are statistical differences if you take a bunch of men and women  Nothing follows from statistical group you belong to What are the three key factors in the process of evolution by natural selection? - Need a Source of Variability o Have to start with a variety of things that have to be passed on - Heritability o Keep things in place during transmission from generation to generation o Need to be almost but not perfect because you need to be a freak to change o Copy errors such as miscarriages - Selection o Some more viable than others o A different rate of success in survival some variants may be more successful in leading more offspring than others Does evolution by natural selection imply that organisms are always selfish? - Economic point of view applies to evolution by natural selection o The arms race of pricing - Because in economics you have to assume that agents are rationally self-interested (although unrealistic, is true) o Because economic point of view applies to evolution by natural selection can be deduced that organisms of natural selection are always selfish - Objective measures o Leaving as many copies of itself a gene can leave so that probability or likelihood of a given gene being passed on is greater - Things in nature don’t work as if they were designed to be the best possible o Example : selfish transposons “The sexual process is in fact the opposite of reproduction,” what do Szathmary and Maynard Smith mean by this? - In reproduction one cell divides into two - In sex two cells fuse to form one - Among single cell organisms they can swap genes without reproduction - Bacteria do not use sex to reproduce - Parthenogenesis (virgin birth) is the production of eggs without fertilization - Without sex, reproduction is possible How does the existence of sexual reproduction seem to create difficulties for the theory of evolution by natural selection? List four disadvantages of sexual reproduction over parthenogenesis? (=all female, self-cloning). - It is better in a sense to be able to pass on our genes without sex but yet we still need sex to do so - Disadvantages of sexual reproduction o The luck need to find a mate in sexual reproduction is hard to obtain o When compared with evolution by natural selection, evolution by sexual reproduction is not as great as it can be o Two fold cost  If you have two feed two people (mother and father) for every offspring the mother alone is reproducing, then it would cost you double vs. parthenogenesis which is reproducing by yourself o Cost of Meiosis  If you’re a gene, chances of getting reproduced in next generation is 50% Distinguish the cost of meiosis from the two fold cost of sex. - The Cost of Meiosis o For any given gene, the chances of being transmitted is only 50% - The Two Fold Cost of Sex o Compared to parthenogenesis maintenance costs are exactly double o Need to people to produce the same number of offspring(s) that if you were just a female o Cost more to maintain two people than one female o Two fold costs pays for itself because two parents increases chances of survival of offspring - The cost of meiosis deals with the gene itself while the two fold cost of sex deals with the cost of maintaining a family after the fact (in comparison with parthenogenesis) The sexes according to Fausto-Sterling: how many sexes should we recognize? How are they defined? What is a true hermaphrodite? A Ferm? A Merm? - Should recognize at least 5 sexes - Male: testes and penis - Female: ovaries and vagina - True Hermaphrodite: 1 testie, 1 ovary - Merm: testes, some female genitalia, no ovaries - Ferm: ovaries, some male genitalia, no testies What is the significance of the fact that gametes come in two very different sizes? Does it necessarily entail that men will be aggressive and women coy? - Ovum: huge and rare o Female manufactures a very small number of gametes (ovum’s) that take a great deal of resources o Allow gamete to survive on its own during the initial gestation period - Sperm: tiny and abundant o Throw as much as you can at the wall and hope something sticks o Extremely small and is produced in the millions o Idea is that men will attempt to simply share as much of it as possible - Women were supposed to be coy and hold out for the best possible mate and seek men who could protect much larger investment her body made in the creation of her gametes - Men much more likely to (try to) be sexually promiscuous - Men thought to be more jealous of sexual dishonestly, while women were thought to be more jealous of emotional dishonesty - Once you control for the cultural and societal norms turns out that none of the above tends to actually be true What are the twelve steps (biological and social) that determine the various aspects of sex, gender, and sexual orientation? Do they always go together? 1. Gametic Sex 2. Chromosomes 3. Fetal Hormones 4. External Anatomy 5. Gonadal Sex (internal functional anatomy) 6. Physiological/Reproductive Functions 7. Hormonal influences in adolescence and adulthood 8. Secondary sex characteristics 9. Social roles in partnership and child raising 10. Social roles in wider social/political sphere 11. Gender identity and style 12. Sexual orientation - ***** How is gender identity related to other aspects of gender? - Acquiring gender identity cannot consist in inductive learning of the core characteristics of sex – menstruation, gestation, lactation, ejaculation, impregnation - Gender identity generally becomes unchangeable overtime (18 months – 4 years) o Age gap too soon to grasp particular facts of life - Nor can it be a matter of learning specific patterns of behaviour o However, a sufficiently strong stimulus – physical, hormonal, neural, social – can push you over practically any behaviour line or barrier Explain the possibility, and discuss the pros and cons, of a sexual system in which gender was r
More Less

Related notes for PHL243H1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.