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phl265 exam answers essay plan format.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
A Ripstein

1 Hobbes and Kant agree that private persons have reason to leave the state of nature They also agree that nations are also in a state of nature Do either of their arguments entail that nations should form a world government DiscussFOCUS both agree on leaving state of nature both disapprove of world government both advocate state alliancesHobbes OPPOSINGstates are always pointing their weapons at one another world government would solve this ARGUMENTSa world government would contribute more to mans misery than individual countries 1 POWERthe power of authority over subjects must be strong enough to rule or state is dissolved 2 EXTENTcannot reach its power with such strength all over rebellion in remote areas is imminent 3 STRENGTHgreater in small numbers society as more industrious subjects better represented 4 INNER CONFLICTopinions are too varied among subjects to create one huge general will will cause argument 5 HUMAN NATUREmen are naturally diffident gloryseeking and powerseeking will cause internal warCONCLUSIONformation of states in alliance is useful and desirable for peace and satisfies above issues Kant OPPOSINGstates in war with one another is the highest degree of wrong perpetual peace achieved by alliance ARGUMENTSit is more prudent to form an alliance of states rather than one world government for peace 1 SCARCITYlarge nations have less sustenance too many people together 2 EXTENTpower extending too far makes governing it and protecting subjects impossible leads to dissolution of state 3 POOR RULEgovernment would be allpowerful yet powerless loses impact of power as range increases 4 RIGHTSworld government protects right of freedom and equality poorly than individual states CONCLUSIONalliance of states would bring perpetual peace observes cosmopolitan right doesnt aim for power2 Marx characterizes capitalist society as a condition in which impersonal dependence assumes the illusory form of personal independence in which all private relations are mediated by contract but everyone is unfree because ultimately subject to market forces Explain his argumentFOCUS the social nature of production and dependence on one another causes production to be master over manTOPIC AIntroduction to Commodities and Labour commodity makes mans product of labour a social character the relation of producers to ones own labour is a social relation the social relation is not between producers but between products commodities are given value socially not determined by subjects CONCLUSIONsocial control over product value and pressure on producersTOPIC BMarket Relations as Product Dependent producers do not come into social contact with each other until they exchange products the social character of producers labour is shown through exchange individual asserts itself as a part of society labour by means of relation formed by exchange producers have material relations only connected by product product must be useful to others not just labouring for oneselfthis creates dependence CONCLUSIONthis situation is created by entering society for dependence on other producersTOPIC CContract and Control value of product is out of producers control commodities personal dependence characterizes social relations personal dependence forms groundwork of society by division of labour total labour of producers forms a social product men are turned into producers of commodities rather than political individuals society based on process of material production CONCLUSIONprocess of production has mastery over man and controls him
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