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phl265 exam questions.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
A Ripstein

Three 3 of the following questions will be identified at the beginning of the exam You must answer all three All three questions will be weighted equally1 Hobbes and Kant agree that private persons have reason to leave the state of nature They also agree that nations are also in a state of nature Do either of their arguments entail that nations should form a world government DiscussWorld government idea of all humankind united in one body politic and under one political authorityWhatsoever therefore is consequent to a time of war where every man is enemy to every man the same consequent to the time wherein men live without other security than what their own strength and their own invention shall furnish them withal In such condition there is no place for industry because the fruit thereof is uncertain and consequently no culture of the earth no navigation nor use of the commodities that may be imported by sea no commodious building no instruments of moving and removing such things as require much force no knowledge of the face of the earth no account of time no arts no letters no society and which is worst of all continual fear and danger of violent death and the life of man solitary poor nasty brutish and shortBut though there had never been any time wherein particular men were in a condition of war one against another yet in all times kings and persons of sovereign authority because of their independency are in continual jealousies and in the state and posture of gladiators having their weapons pointing and their eyes fixed on one another that is their forts garrisons and guns upon the frontiers of their kingdoms and continual spies upon their neighbours which is a posture of war But because they uphold thereby the industry of their subjects there does not follow from it that misery which accompanies the liberty of particular men men join commonwealths in foresight of their selfpreservation and for an overall better life if there be no power erected or not great enough for our security every man will and may lawfully rely on his own strength and art for caution against all other men And as small families did then so now do cities and kingdoms which are but greater families for their own security enlarge their dominions upon all pretenses of danger and fear of invasion or assistance that may be given to invaders and endeavor as much as they can to subdue or weaken their neighbors by open force and secret arts for lack of other protection justly and are remembered for it in later ages with honor Nor is it the joining together of a small number of men that gives them this security because in small numbers small additions on the one side or the other make the advantage of strength so great as is sufficient to carry the victory and there fore gives encouragement to an invasion The multitude sufficient to confide in for our security is not determined by any certain number but by comparison with the enemy we fear and is then sufficient when the advantage of the enemy is not so visible and conspicuous to determine the event of war as to move him to attempt it And should there not be so great a multitude even if their actions be directed according to their particular judgments and particular appetites they can expect thereby no defense nor protection neither against a common enemy nor against the in juries of one another For being distracted in opinions concerning the best use and application of their strength they do not help but hinder one another and reduce their strength by mutual op position to nothing whereby they are easily not only subdued by a very few that agree together but also when there is no common enemy they make war upon each other for their particular interests For if we could suppose a great multitude of men to consent in the observation of justice and other laws of nature without a common power to keep them all in awe we might as well suppose all mankind to do the same and then there neither would be nor need to be any civil government or commonwealth at all because there would be peace without subjectionNor is it enough for the security which men desire should last all the time of their life that they be governed and directed by one judgment for a limited time as in one battle or one war For though they obtain a victory by their unanimous endeavor against a foreign enemy yet afterwards when either they have no common enemy or he that by one group is held for an enemy is by an other group held for a friend they must needs the difference of their interests dissolve and fall into a war among themselves Hobbes like Henry Kissinger was certain that anarchy was a permanent condition of international relations His reason like Kissingers was that sovereign countries had no real interest in giving up their power to create a world government which could easily abuse its power Some realists such as Hobbes and Kissinger say that government cannot function and is not really a government at all if it cannot enforce the laws it makes The only type of world government that will ever exist given realist expectations is created by empireby the overwhelming military force of one country Such an empire would not last long because it is difficult if not impossible to control many people especially in the remote corners of the world There would always be places where rebellions could start In Leviathan 1651 Hobbes 15881679 gave the quintessential formulation of sovereignty as supreme legal coercive authority over a particular population and territory Hobbes argued that although mutual vulnerabilities and interests lead individuals to give up their liberties in the state of nature in exchange for protectionthereby instituting sovereign statesthe miseries that accompany a plurality of sovereign states are not as onerous to individuals hence there is less rational basis for political organization to move towards a global leviathan because states uphold the Industry of their Subjects there does not follow from the international state of nature that misery which accompanies the Liberty of particular men 1651 188 Contrary to realist interpretations of Hobbes in international relations thought Hobbes did not consider international law or cooperation between sovereign states to be impossible or impractical Anticipating the development of international law collective security organizations the League of Nations and the United Nations he affirmed the possibility and efficacy of leagues of commonwealths founded on the interests of states in peace and justice Leagues between Commonwealths over whom there is no humane Power established to keep them all in awe are not onely lawfull because they are allowed by the commonwealth but also profitable for the time they last 286 In Hobbes we find the first articulation of the argument that a world government or state is unnecessary although he envisaged that the development of a lawful interstate order is possible and potentially desirableKant a state as a moral person is considered as living in relation to another state in the condition of natural freedom considered therefore in a condition of constant war this condition is wrong in the highest degree states neighbouring one another are under an obligation to leave it a league of nations in accordance with the idea of an original social contract is necessary to protect against attacks from without must involve a federation not a sovereign authority an association that can be renounced at any time avoid war human population must be small no matter their level of industry scarcity would follow large nations there would not be adequate sustenance for such a great abundance of menstates have certain rights to form alliances with one another for their common defence if a state of nations were to extend too far governing it and so too protecting each of its members would finally have to become impossible and would bring on a state of war again perpetual peace can be achieved in this way only there cannot be a united nation but there should be alliancesKant noted that the positive idea of a world republic cannot be realized thus his treatise on perpetual peace begins with the social fact of a world of distinct but interacting states Second such internally wellordered states would need to enter into a federation of peoples which is distinct from an international state 102 A pacific federation foedus pacificumdoes not aim to acquire any power like that of a state but merely to preserve and secure the freedom of each state in itself along with that of the other confederated statesHis reasons against a universal monarchy combine fears of an allpowerful and powerless world government For the laws progressively lose their impact as the government increases its range and a soulless despotism after crushing the germs of goodness will finally lapse into anarchy 113 Most forcefully articulating the tyranny objection Kant argued that a universal despotism would end in the graveyard of freedom 114 The third condition for perpetual peace in a world of distinct but interacting states is the observance of cosmopolitan right which Kant limits to universal hospitality Although the human race shares in common a right to the earths surface Kant argued that strangers do not have entitlements to settle on foreign territory without the inhabitants agreement Thus cosmopolitan right justifies visiting a foreign land but not conquering itHis endorsement of the ideal of human unity prompts him to see a world republic of free and equal individuals as an ideal end of the progress of human history At the same time he condemns any move towards a universal monarchy because a monarchy in contrast to a republic does not guarantee and is more likely to undermine the freedom and equality of individuals
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