Informed consent final exam notes
1. How do we explore the professional ethics?
A. A answer one: (easy) not to expect a special domain for healthcare but
follow the general framework for all professionals.
i. Health care is special. We need it in a special way, different
from our need for dry cleaning
ii. Health care is a response to the vulnerabilities in our bodies
iii. And bodies are in some sense identical to ourselves
iv. Much of what the health care professionals do seems like
v. Therefore the state is mean to protect us from these kinds
of bodily threats
b. Important: bioethical questions about professional behaviour
cannot be redued to questions of justice
B. Second answer (wrong): treat professional ethics like the bioethics of
everyday life. Rely on informed reflection based in CD.
a. But if you rely on CD it leaves us vulnerable to doctors and
bioethicists imposing their views on us. This is called as
Tyranny of the physicians.
2. How do you consider pluralism?
a. Take FRP as a starting point – factor of reasonable pluralism. – social policy
forces people to live a certain way and it is unfair that people live on terms that
they do not accept).
b. Recognizing our vulnerability to others imposing their moral judgements on us –
we recognize that we too are vulnerable for others imposing their opoininons in
c. We are vulnerable when we are living together in a society
d. Society offers obvious benefits, but also opens us to exploitation by the
3. In professional ethics our vulnerability come not from others imposing their ideas but
thourgh diseases, disability, death.
a. Medicine offers us many benefits (cures, palliation, mechanical aids)
b. Medicine also leaves us at risk that the powerful will exploit us. (health
4. How do you find ways to live by your own comprehensive doctrines? a. Vulnerability to the powerful is solved by a politica conception of justice
b. Vulnerability to medical professionals solved by the doctrine of informed