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Plato, Republic Books 3-4

2 Pages
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Department
Philosophy
Course Code
PHL100Y1
Professor
Mark Kingwell

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Plato Republic: Book 4 Week of: October 4
th
, 2010.
The Ideal City
Reading: Plato, Republic Books 3-4
Socrates : Goal of Kallipolis – not to make any one group in city outstandingly
happy at expense of others (Thrasymachus claimed) but to make everyone as
happy as nature allows (421c)
Accomplished if everyone in it practices his natural craft, producing, guarding, or
ruling
Guardians must primarily protect system of education to become reasonable and
will see orders clearly (434a-c)
Religious practice laws to be deliberated by “the traditional lawgiver” Delphian
Apollo (427b-c)
Kallipolis established (427d) and since completely good (427e) must have all
virtues of a city (352d-354a):
-Wisdom (guardianship possess ed by rulers/complete guardians)
-Courage (preservation and not abandoning of the belief inculcated by laws
through education about what things are to be feared)
-Moderation (harmony between rulers and r uled)
-Justice (exchange and meddling)—identified with distinct structural features of
Kallipolis (434d)
Justice – for the moneymaking, auxiliary, and guardian classes each to do its own
work in the city
Same structural features are identical to virtues in individual soul (434d-435a):
appetitive (producers), spirited (guardians), and rational (r ulers) (435c-441c)
Central question of republic: whether more profitable to be just or unjust (4 45a)
Guardians must guard against poverty and wealth (421e)
City moderately governed will be the greatest (not by reputation) (423a)
If offspring of guardians is inferior, must be sent off to join other citizens, and if
others have able offspring, must join guardi ans (423c)
Other citizens to be directed towards naturally suited for; doing one work that is
his own, he will become not many but one, and whole city will itself be naturally
one not many (423d)
Must guard against any innovation in music and poetry or physical training that is
counter to the established order (424b)
Soul:
-Rational (calculates right from wrong, angry)
- Ir rational (lusts, hungers, thirsts and gets excited by other appetites) (439d-e)
-Spirited (by nature the helper of rational part soul) (441a)
Individual wise in the same way and same part as the city (441c)
Man is just in the same way as the city (441d)
Each one of us in whom each part is doing his own work will himself be just and
do his won (441e)
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Description
Plato Republic: Book 4 Week of: October 4 , 2010. The Ideal City Reading: Plato, Republic Books 3-4 Socrates: Goal of Kallipolis not to make any one group in city outstandingly happy at expense of others (Thrasymachus claimed) but to make everyone as happy as nature allows (421c) Accomplished if everyone in it practices his natural craft, producing, guarding, or ruling Guardians must primarily protect system of education to become reasonable and will see orders clearly (434a-c) Religious practice laws to be deliberated by the traditional lawgiver Delphian Apollo (427b-c) Kallipolis established (427d) and since completely good (427e) must have all virtues of a city (352d-354a): - Wisdom (guardianship possessed by rulerscomplete guardians) - Courage (preservation and not abandoning of the belief inculcated by laws through education about what things are to be feared) - Moderation (harmony between rulers and ruled) - Justice (exchange and meddling)identified with distinct structural features of Kallipolis (434d) Justice for the moneymaking, auxiliary, and guardian classes each to do its own work in the city Same structural features are identica
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