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8 Pages
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Department
Philosophy
Course Code
PHL100Y1
Professor
Mark Kingwell

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Hobbes
Social Contract Theory:
The act of giving up certain natural rights and transferring them to someone else, on the condition
that everyone else involved in making the contract also simultaneously gives up their rights. People
agreeing to the contract retain only those rights over others that they are content for everyone else
to retain over them.
Social institutions are the product of voluntary agreement among free individuals,
Consent gives the government authority
It explains why people are morally obligated at all and what they are obligated to do
State of Nature:
The State of Nature is the (hypothetical) situation in which people have no social/political ties to one
another, in conditions of scarcity. Hobbes holds that it is a war of all against all, as a result of factual
equality and human striving for power, security, and reputation.
The "natural condition of mankind" is what would exist if there were no government, no civilization,
no laws, and no common power to restrain human nature. The state of nature is a "war of all
against all," in which human beings constantly seek to destroy each other in an incessant pursuit
for power. Life in the state of nature is "nasty, brutish and short."
A hypothetical theory, it shows that rational being are act in way that only benefits themselves.
How people behave in society without laws or Social authority
Results in a war against all when scarcity exists
Factual Egalitarianism:
Reasoning why the war against all would occur because everyone is going for the same thing, and
because everyone is equal everyone can achieve the same goals creating competition
Natural Right:
The sole natural right he recognizes in the State of Nature is that each person has the liberty to use
any means possible to preserve his or her life
Natural Law:
A Law of Nature is a precept or general rule, found out by reason, by which a man is forbidden to
do that which is destructive of his life or taken away the means of preserving the same.
A general rule discovered by reason that forbids a person from doing anything destructive to her
own life and gives her the right of self-preservation. The laws of nature state that human beings
must strive for peace, which is best achieved by contract.
In a war of all against all, a rational person should try achieve:
Peace whenever possible
Lay down right to promote peace
Abide by the contract
Prisoner!s Dilemma (Game Theory):
When confronted with a choice:
Each person has to reason strategically to act in his own interest
Hume argues that each person would choose the decision in their best interest and get the
dominant outcome.
Shows incentives in the state of nature
Dominant Outcome
The outcome that happens most often
Optimal Outcome:
The best situation for a rational person
Assurance Game:
Game where you need assurance because one will usually defect based on the dominant outcome;
therefore it is necessary to have government control in order to have assurance and achieve the
optimal outcome. (Stag Rabbit Example)
www.notesolution.com
Hobbes vs. the Foole :
Hobbes!s Foole revives Glaucon!s challenge (§14.4): Why keep agreements, when it seems to be
to one!s advantage to break them? This is of course the key worry in overcoming a Prisoner!s
Dilemma, or even in ensuring cooperation in an Assurance Game.
Renouncing vs. Transferring of Rights:
Getting rid of your rights
Giving the right to someone specific
Natural Person vs. Artificial Person:
Singular Person
Natural person refers to the individual human being
Artificial is an institution or establishment [the man(the big brother)]
Author vs. Actor:
Actor is the person who preforms the action
Author is the person who authorizes the action or is responsible for it
Features of the Sovereign Power:
An agent authorized by each individual in the commonwealth giving authorization to them to act in
their name, the transferring of rights to a natural or artificial person.
Can!t challenge their actions because each action of the sovereign power is an action of all
individuals.
Undivided, Absolute and Perpetual
Inalienable and Nontransferable rights:
A right that is not transferable
The right to self defense
Can!t incriminate yourself
Right to refuse involuntary conscription
No Fault Theory of Conflict:
The government can ask you do break one of your inalienable rights however you have the right to
say no, neither party is wrong it is just a conflict.
Analytical Requirements on Sovereignty:
it is undivided, that is, possessed by a single actor, or there will be no authority
it is absolute, extending to any and all things, just as each of the transferred rights do
it is perpetual, to guarantee stability
Consequences of Sovereignty:
The form of government, once established, cannot be changed.
The sovereign power is not forfeited by any action.
The actions of the sovereign power cannot be challenged, or even questioned.
The sovereign power is unpunishable and above the law.
www.notesolution.com
Hume
Impressions: Impressions are distinguished from ideas in being more “forceful and lively” in
themselves; it roughly matches up with the distinction between feeling and thinking, present
experience and non-present experience
Causation: Causal reasoning is, and must be, based on experience. Distinguish two claims:
(C1) All effects have causes - Based on a relation among ideas: it is part of the idea of an effect
that it be caused. That is, "cause! and "effect! are correlative terms. "Effect! means something like
"an event brought about by some other event!.
(C2) All events have causes - Is a matter of fact: we identify as the cause and as the effect are in
fact no more than two distinct events; there is no more reason why a given event should a priori be
the effect of a given event as cause than any other event.
Uniformity-of-Nature Principle (UNP)/ Epistemic Warrant for Belie: The future will be like the past
As have been followed by Bs. -> The future will be like the past. = Therefore: This A will be followed
by a B.
Theory of Ideas :
All perceptions are either (a) impressions or (b) ideas. (a) and (b) can be simple in itself or be a
complex composite of ideas.
Sensing and sentiment produce only impressions, whereas thinking only produces ideas
All ideas are copies of impressions.
Copy Principle:
Complex idea are composed of simple ideas, which are fainter copies of the simple impressions
(Through senses) from which they are ultimately derived, to which they correspond and exactly
resemble. (Gold, Mountain=Gold Mountain)
The 'Missing Shade of Blue' Objection
Hume claims someone could (1) recognize that a shade was missing and then (2) form the
corresponding idea of the missing shade
Relation of Ideas: A priori/Analytic/necessary
operations of thought without dependence on what is anywhere existent in the universe. it is not
dependant on experience.
Matters of Fact: A posteriori/Synthetic/Contingent
Truths based on experience and the contrary to every matter of fact is still possible. Ex. the sun will
rise tomorrow or the sun will not rise tomorrow. Have the possibility of being not true and can be
proven wrong.
Causal Reasoning
When we have good reason to believe that events of one sort (the causes) are systematically
related to events of some other sort (the effects)
Causal Inferences:
causal inferences take place when and only when the percipient has had an extensive previous
experience of objects of the respective types as regularly conjoined in relations of contiguity and
temporal priority.
Hume's Problem of Induction
No justification for inductive inferences - (Hume argues that there is no way to support the claim
that the future will be like the past without begging the question.)
Old Riddle of Induction
assumption that past history is relevant to future. (Hume questions this).
Miracles
Hume applies these notions of credence to "miracles!—that is, to singular events: events that go
against some causal law we have formulated.
Habituation/Impressions: habituation—through the influence of "custom!
"empiricist theory of meaning! - to any legitimate idea there must correspond an impression in some
fashion
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Hobbes Social Contract Theory: The act of giving up certain natural rights and transferring them to someone else, on the condition that everyone else involved in making the contract also simultaneously gives up their rights. People agreeing to the contract retain only those rights over others that they are content for everyone else to retain over them. Social institutions are the product of voluntary agreement among free individuals, Consent gives the government authority It explains why people are morally obligated at all and what they are obligated to do State of Nature: The State of Nature is the (hypothetical) situation in which people have no socialpolitical ties to one another, in conditions of scarcity. Hobbes holds that it is a war of all against all, as a result of factual equality and human striving for power, security, and reputation. The natural condition of mankind is what would exist if there were no government, no civilization, no laws, and no common power to restrain human nature. The state of nature is a war of all against all, in which human beings constantly seek to destroy each other in an incessant pursuit for power. Life in the state of nature is nasty, brutish and short. A hypothetical theory, it shows that rational being are act in way that only benets themselves. How people behave in society without laws or Social authority Results in a war against all when scarcity exists Factual Egalitarianism: Reasoning why the war against all would occur because everyone is going for the same thing, and because everyone is equal everyone can achieve the same goals creating competition Natural Right: The sole natural right he recognizes in the State of Nature is that each person has the liberty to use any means possible to preserve his or her life Natural Law: A Law of Nature is a precept or general rule, found out by reason, by which a man is forbidden to do that which is destructive of his life or taken away the means of preserving the same. A general rule discovered by reason that forbids a person from doing anything destructive to her own life and gives her the right of self-preservation. The laws of nature state that human beings must strive for peace, which is best achieved by contract. In a war of all against all, a rational person should try achieve: Peace whenever possible Lay down right to promote peace Abide by the contract Prisoners Dilemma (Game Theory): When confronted with a choice: Each person has to reason strategically to act in his own interest Hume argues that each person would choose the decision in their best interest and get the dominant outcome. Shows incentives in the state of nature Dominant Outcome The outcome that happens most often Optimal Outcome: The best situation for a rational person Assurance Game: Game where you need assurance because one will usually defect based on the dominant outcome; therefore it is necessary to have government control in order to have assurance and achieve the optimal outcome. (Stag Rabbit Example) www.notesolution.com
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