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Final

Full Exam Notes


Department
Philosophy
Course Code
PHL281H1
Professor
Donald Ainslie
Study Guide
Final

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Charter #7
Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of the person
and the right not to be deprived thereof except in accordance with
the principles of fundamental justice.
Example: one sperm donor: 150 offspring
- Due they morally owe anything to the offspring?
- Any legal obligations
What is bioethics
- what are the morals towards death
- I.e. Global mail - “make the right to die legal with protections”?
Different Questions raised - what issue we are proposed with?
- how we as individuals can make sense of these new tech that are imposed to us:
- How should it matter to us if we have (many) unknown children? Siblings? Is
there a moral obligation to know them these offspring of sperm donor
- How should the law/social policy regulate this policy (should 1 donor have 150
kids bc there could be incest) -- when should law dawn into our personal
freedom? This is a bioethical question - whether and how u donate your sperm
- What the health professionals should do? What regulations they should follow?
Do the the HP have to tell these clinics that this guys has already had 150 kids,
are all these kids healthy or have diseases that harm etc
3 kinds of bioethical questions: when they arise, how they arise, how we resolve them
1. How should we understand what is it to be a moral human being
2. What should the state allow us to do with our bodies and what should the state
enable us to do i.e. Health care professionals
What is bioethics
- the exploitation of the moral question that arise
1. Moral questions
- How should be behave is the general form of moral ?‟s
- “Should” i.e. The credentials, given your goals what is the best way to achieve
them
- Not a question about self interest
- Not a questions about how we actually DO behave, some ppl do good and bad
things -- we dont study or do polls about ppls behavior but we are interested in
what they SHOULD BE DOING, not what they are doing or what they should do
in their self interest
- Instead we appeal to VALUES - right/wrong, virtuous/vicious (find moral
significance in peoples behavior), obligated (what we are required to do i.e. Pay
taxes)/ forbidden
- We are asking moral questions by appealing to the moral terms above and more …
hwo they appeal in terms of the biological realm

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Different kind of moral values.
- ppl think its in appeal to the rlg traditions that is the moral values - in to ref trad
- Religion:
- The blessed, divine, sacred, pious
- When things are sacred, what does that mean?
- I.e. Pope john paul reading: he thinks his arguments are will appeal to all ppl
with good will -- but how does ppl who dont by into that world view call
something sacred?
- Non religious values:
- Values like human well being, human integrity, rationality
- Ppl share without buying to rlg views
Type1 question about individual belief: the bioethics of everyday life
- when answering these, individually, bc we all want answers, doesn't mean we dont
criticize for the answer, if we didn't criticize we would be relativists
- we think it does matter and we can be wrong
- for a relativists thinks about morality like how we think about ice cream what we think
is the best, someone can disagree, bc there is nothing to appeal to to criticize, when it
comes the morals of life there are reasons to challenge one another bc we share
commitments to value
- there is space to argue, doesnt mean we will all agree
- bioethics of everyday like the problem is that we all have reasonable disagreements,
we cant resolve it but we can recognize where we are all coming from.
Type 2: How society should b structured and what law should we have
- whos views should be social policy
- Answer is that we tolerate one another on these views, we agree to do our on things
with counteracting one another
Type4: questions about professional ethics
- health care practitioners rules should follow when ppl disagree on their ideas of
morality in a pluralist society
- They should enable patients to live be their own (reasonable) values
2. “Exploitation”
- explore in a phil exploitation, not empirical, not rlg, not, economic etc
- Argument and counter argument
- Give reason for our positions
- Intelligent, informed reflections - not just one personal thoughts, come to find a way to
approach a question by appeal to tech and concepts that will have power to
understand it better
3. “Our Biological Nature”
- we are “of women born”
- Look at abortion as the way we reflect on how we come into this world

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- Reproduce sexually
- 9 months gestation
- Many years of helplessness in infancy and childhood
-
- Susceptibility to diease and disability
- Genetic variability Mortal and with an indefinite future - how to make sense that our life
has a stoping point some time in the future
LECTURE 2 - The Sancitiy of Life (Sept 14)
„Bioethics of Everyday Life‟
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