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study notes for lecture three: classifications of hormones

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Doug Mac Kay

LECTURE THREE: CLASSIFICATION OF HORMONES ((peptideprotein = 3+ AAs, steroid = cholesterol, amine hormones = single AA) their properties are based largely on their composition HORMONE CLASSIFICATIONS Hormone Synthesis, Packaging, Release Processing Other Considerations peptide synthesized like proteins insulin o most hormones, most common hormone - preprohormone mRNA sequence is pre-pro-insulin in the ER, released o water soluble, dissolved in plasma = transcribed with an ER signal sequence into golgi 40839300,.,77L0794.L7.:O,909K0-4 - ribosomes translate the prohormone and in released from the golgi as pro- o short half life, easily degraded when the ER it undergoes modifications insulin after modification exposed to surroundings - after ER prohormone goes into the golgi cleaved to form active insulin and o bind to plasma membrane receptors (they where it undergoes more modifications and non-active C-peptide proteins cannot enter the cell) packaging into a vesicle {part of the golgi} during exocytosis both insulin and o C-peptide is not active like insulin - vesicle will be released from golgi into C-peptide are released into the o because insulin has such a short half life extracellular space when needed bloodstream in a 1:1 fashion and is metabolized quickly, can measure insulin levels by measuring levels of C- - made in advance peptide - stored in vesicles in the tissuescells where L982,0 - released into the bloodstream via exocytosis only when needed - release is caused by an external stimulus steroid - synthesized only from cholesterol cholesterol is modified by enzymes o water insoluble bound to carriers in the hormone - made on demand to make steroid hormones blood - released via simple diffusion into the cell adrenal cortex = aldosterone, o long half life (compared to peptide cortisol hormones) ovary = estrogen o has cytoplasmnucleus receptors because it can move among cells o because receptors are at nucleus, can regulate gene expression
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