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study notes for lecture six: calcium imbalance

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University of Toronto St. George
Doug Mac Kay

LECTURE SIX: CALCIUM BALANCE *ER = endoplasmic reticulum *SR = sarcoplasmic reticulum *PLC = phospholipase C *IP3 = inositol triphosphate *DAG = diacyl glycerol *PIP2 = phosphotidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate CALCIUM AND NORMAL PHYSIOLOGY FUNCTION Considerations intracellular signalling - recall: one of the G-57490L3.4:5O070.05947880.43208803J078890297LJJ070:543epinephrine binding 2+ releases PLC which elevates levels of IP3 and DAG, which results in increase of intracellular [Ca ] - consider: alpha-1 adrenergic receptor - upon activation, a heterotrimeric G protein activates phospholipase C which cleaves PIP2 into both IP3 and DAG increasing its levels - IP3 is soluble and diffuses through the cell - it binds to its receptor on ER and SR opening calcium channels 2+ - results in increase of Ca in cytoplasm and sarcoplasm 2+ - has a positive feedback on SR resulting in increased Ca release hormone secretion - process of insulin secretion = rise of intracellular calcium blood clotting - neural excitability - different statuses of neuronal activity leading to firing of neurons - there is strict regulation muscle contraction - building and maintaining bone - strength calcium spark recall: glucose stimulates insulin release before its release, there is a spike of Ca which serves as a signal ((how is the total calcium in your body maintained)) intake output diet kidney small intestine ((how is the total calcium in your body maintained))
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