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study notes for lecture nine: growth control of hormones

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University of Toronto St. George
Doug Mac Kay

LECTURE NINE: GROWTH CONTROL OF HORMONES *growth {takes place during development} is different from remodelling {takes place constantly} BONE GROWTH STAGE Mechanism Other Considerations 1 - chondrocytes form a growth plate chondrocytes are collagen producing cells of cartilage 2 - osteoblasts differentiate at the site of growth plate to start ossification is activated by osteoblast differentiation ossification growth is dependent on: diet (malnutrition leads to a reduction of growth) genetics classical hormones and growth factors ::growth hormone, thyroid hormone, insulin {are needed to activate ::cortisol endocrine system and stimulate growth} ::insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) ::sex steroids growth hormone stimulates bone growth via direct and indirect binding ::indirect stimulation ::direct stimulation bind to liver and trigger the release of IGF-1 {made from the liver} binding at the bone matrix IGF-1 acts at matrix level recruiting chondrocytes recruits chondrocytes to the site of GH binding favours chondrocytes proliferation leads to proliferation of chondrocytes results in proliferation of the matrix results in enhancement of matrix growth osteoblasts will come and initiate ossification *chondrocytes result in increased (recruitment, proliferation, matrix) growth hormone stimulates bone remodelling via direct and indirect binding of IGF-1 remodelling occurs every ~100 days involves osteoClasts and osteoblasts ((bone remodelling)) first: recruitment of osteoclasts to site for matrix resorptionbone engulfment to create cavities next: recruitment of osteoblasts to proliferate and replace bone matrix {chewed up by osteoclasts} GH and IGF-1 can directly recruit osteoblasts for bone replacement
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