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Final

PSL280 Final review.docx

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Department
Physiology
Course
PSL280H1
Professor
C.Wittnich
Semester
Fall

Description
PSL280 Final review Focus of New material  Respiratory system o Composed of Nares / blow holes Nasal cavity Larynx(voicebox) tracheapirmary bronchisecondary bronchibronchibronchiolsalveoli o * cartilage of the repiratory is usually complete rings o *process of breathing( opening air way) is voluntary, closing is passive o Mysticete2 blow holes Odontocete  one blow hole o Cetacean and pinniped larynx  Goose beak is supported by thyroid cartilage ( cetaceans)  Separates breathing and feeding  Short trachea which consists of cartilage rings o Beluga/ sperm(5-7) dugong(4) manatee (8-12)  Pinnipeds  2 arytenoids or throat cartilages that help close off the epiglottis.  Lungs:  Pinnipeds have same sized lungs but the right has 4 and left has 3  Cetaceans have a larger , longer and heavier right lung heart pushed left o Cetacean have more cartilaginous support o Small residual lung volume massive tidal volume  Sea otter: RL( 4 lobes) LL(2lobes)  large lung capacity not for diving but buoyancy.  Polar bears: have no lung adaptation  Sirenia: extremely long lungs almost as far as the kidneys and aid in buoyancy control o Diaphragm is under lungs and runs lengthwise  Bronchiole Differences  Cetaceans: primary bronchus runs entire length, few secondary. o Small tubes run from bronchioles respiratory vesicles along the bronchioles instead of at the end of them  Sirenia: very muscular bronchioles used to compress air and regulate buoyancy  Pinnipeds o Phocid: bronchiol is completely reinforced with muscle and some cartilage, muscle extends from bronchiole to alveoli o Otariid: bronchiole is mostly supported by cartilage, cartilage extends to mouth of alveolar sacs. Muscle doesn’t extend full bronchiole length o Odobenidae  Bronchiol is supported by all muscle with little cartilage, muscle extends with some cartilage  3 origins, directly from cartilaginous airways, off of muscle and at ending.  Renal system o Osmoregulation: balance between water intake and the excretion of minerals to maintain certain levels. o From the Kidney, the ureter drains urine from the hilus and collects it into the bladder o Excretion: filtration + excretion – resorption. o Cortical medullary axis: counter current concentrator o Reniculated kidneys  Rennicles are composed of the cortext and its own medulla so there are many miniature kidneys with in one multireniculated kidney.  The number of renicles correlates with the selenity of the diet. * The number of renicles in a dolphin would be more than in a manatee due to the fresh water. o 3 basic sources that animals can obtain water for osmoregulation  Drink fresh water directly  Water from food  Water produced by metabolism  1g of fat  1.07 g of H2O o Water loss prevention  Lower water content of air exhaled,  Concentrate urine more and feces  Reduce sweating or sweat glands o Mariposia  The drinking of seawater due to high protein diet makes it possible to excrete Urea from the body. Sea otters area good example.  Sea otter : 62ml/kg  Fur seal 1.8ml/gh  Harbor seal 4.8ml/kg  Common dolphins 12-13 ml/kg.  Reproduction o Which groups tend to need the least and the most parental care?  Cetaceans and sirenians: need little care or protection  Pinnipeds/Polar bears and Sea otters: need lots of care so mom loses body weight. o What groups give birth in water and on land?  Polar bears and Pinnipeds : on land  Cetaceans, sirenians and sea otters: in water o Where do certain groups breed, water or land?  Cetaceans , sirenians , Sea otters, and pinnipeds( walrus) breed in water  Polar bears, some pinnipeds ( elephant seals) breed on land  Some pinnipeds( gray seals) breed in both water and land. o What are the actions of the parents while raising young?  Cetaceans, sirenians, sea otters, and walrus : still forage while feeding young.  Polar bears and elephant seals: cause the females to fast while raising young. o Go and memorize gestation rates and reproductive cycle intervals. o Reproductive anatomy  Females all have : ovaires, oviducts, uterus, cervix, vagina, clitoris and vaginal vestibule.  Uterus differences amongst marine mammals  Simplex; humans; 1 uterine body/no horns; 1 cerix  Duplex : walrus : 2 horns : 2 cervix  Bipartite: phocids: 2 horns septated: 1 cervix  Bicornuate: cetaceans/ sirenians/ seaotters/ polar bears: 2 horns no septum with single body; 1 cervix  Cervix: muscular sphincter that separates the uterus from the vagina  Manatees: west indian has a rounded cervix but Dugongs have a shield that starts in the uterus and surrounds the cervix  Cetaceans have a cervix that is long and tubular that opens into the vagina lots of variation among species o Long in the harbor porpoises but short in narwhals  Mammary glands  Phocids: lying under blubber in CT sheath  Otarids: lying under blubber covering ventral body surface  Cetaceans: have nipple slits with the mammary gland lying on both sides of the ventromedial line between the umbilicus to above the anus.  cutaneous trunki is what contracts these mammary glands.  Nipple location  Cetaceans: 2 ventromedially  Sirenians: under pectoral flippers
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