Study Guides (248,223)
Canada (121,413)
Physiology (149)
PSL280H1 (2)

PSL280 Final review.docx

6 Pages
Unlock Document


PSL280 Final review Focus of New material  Respiratory system o Composed of Nares / blow holes Nasal cavity Larynx(voicebox) tracheapirmary bronchisecondary bronchibronchibronchiolsalveoli o * cartilage of the repiratory is usually complete rings o *process of breathing( opening air way) is voluntary, closing is passive o Mysticete2 blow holes Odontocete  one blow hole o Cetacean and pinniped larynx  Goose beak is supported by thyroid cartilage ( cetaceans)  Separates breathing and feeding  Short trachea which consists of cartilage rings o Beluga/ sperm(5-7) dugong(4) manatee (8-12)  Pinnipeds  2 arytenoids or throat cartilages that help close off the epiglottis.  Lungs:  Pinnipeds have same sized lungs but the right has 4 and left has 3  Cetaceans have a larger , longer and heavier right lung heart pushed left o Cetacean have more cartilaginous support o Small residual lung volume massive tidal volume  Sea otter: RL( 4 lobes) LL(2lobes)  large lung capacity not for diving but buoyancy.  Polar bears: have no lung adaptation  Sirenia: extremely long lungs almost as far as the kidneys and aid in buoyancy control o Diaphragm is under lungs and runs lengthwise  Bronchiole Differences  Cetaceans: primary bronchus runs entire length, few secondary. o Small tubes run from bronchioles respiratory vesicles along the bronchioles instead of at the end of them  Sirenia: very muscular bronchioles used to compress air and regulate buoyancy  Pinnipeds o Phocid: bronchiol is completely reinforced with muscle and some cartilage, muscle extends from bronchiole to alveoli o Otariid: bronchiole is mostly supported by cartilage, cartilage extends to mouth of alveolar sacs. Muscle doesn’t extend full bronchiole length o Odobenidae  Bronchiol is supported by all muscle with little cartilage, muscle extends with some cartilage  3 origins, directly from cartilaginous airways, off of muscle and at ending.  Renal system o Osmoregulation: balance between water intake and the excretion of minerals to maintain certain levels. o From the Kidney, the ureter drains urine from the hilus and collects it into the bladder o Excretion: filtration + excretion – resorption. o Cortical medullary axis: counter current concentrator o Reniculated kidneys  Rennicles are composed of the cortext and its own medulla so there are many miniature kidneys with in one multireniculated kidney.  The number of renicles correlates with the selenity of the diet. * The number of renicles in a dolphin would be more than in a manatee due to the fresh water. o 3 basic sources that animals can obtain water for osmoregulation  Drink fresh water directly  Water from food  Water produced by metabolism  1g of fat  1.07 g of H2O o Water loss prevention  Lower water content of air exhaled,  Concentrate urine more and feces  Reduce sweating or sweat glands o Mariposia  The drinking of seawater due to high protein diet makes it possible to excrete Urea from the body. Sea otters area good example.  Sea otter : 62ml/kg  Fur seal 1.8ml/gh  Harbor seal 4.8ml/kg  Common dolphins 12-13 ml/kg.  Reproduction o Which groups tend to need the least and the most parental care?  Cetaceans and sirenians: need little care or protection  Pinnipeds/Polar bears and Sea otters: need lots of care so mom loses body weight. o What groups give birth in water and on land?  Polar bears and Pinnipeds : on land  Cetaceans, sirenians and sea otters: in water o Where do certain groups breed, water or land?  Cetaceans , sirenians , Sea otters, and pinnipeds( walrus) breed in water  Polar bears, some pinnipeds ( elephant seals) breed on land  Some pinnipeds( gray seals) breed in both water and land. o What are the actions of the parents while raising young?  Cetaceans, sirenians, sea otters, and walrus : still forage while feeding young.  Polar bears and elephant seals: cause the females to fast while raising young. o Go and memorize gestation rates and reproductive cycle intervals. o Reproductive anatomy  Females all have : ovaires, oviducts, uterus, cervix, vagina, clitoris and vaginal vestibule.  Uterus differences amongst marine mammals  Simplex; humans; 1 uterine body/no horns; 1 cerix  Duplex : walrus : 2 horns : 2 cervix  Bipartite: phocids: 2 horns septated: 1 cervix  Bicornuate: cetaceans/ sirenians/ seaotters/ polar bears: 2 horns no septum with single body; 1 cervix  Cervix: muscular sphincter that separates the uterus from the vagina  Manatees: west indian has a rounded cervix but Dugongs have a shield that starts in the uterus and surrounds the cervix  Cetaceans have a cervix that is long and tubular that opens into the vagina lots of variation among species o Long in the harbor porpoises but short in narwhals  Mammary glands  Phocids: lying under blubber in CT sheath  Otarids: lying under blubber covering ventral body surface  Cetaceans: have nipple slits with the mammary gland lying on both sides of the ventromedial line between the umbilicus to above the anus.  cutaneous trunki is what contracts these mammary glands.  Nipple location  Cetaceans: 2 ventromedially  Sirenians: under pectoral flippers
More Less

Related notes for PSL280H1

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.