All of French Notes, Written, Condensed and Summarized. Very Useful!!

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Michelle French

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PSL300Endocrine Lecture 1Endocrine System OverviewHormones chemicals made by cells or single cells in specific endocrine glands or other tissues for maintaining homeostasis or precipitate change in many physiological processes can be made by different parts of the body transported in the blood to distant targets binds to specific receptorsmay act on multiple tissues alter activity of target cell action must be terminated feedback mechanism neededHormone StimulusReceptorIntracellular signalling pathwayscell activityBody functionProduction of Hormones Epithelium connective tissue go through divisionExocrine produce hormone into duct hormone secreted to the surface may be in or out of the bodyEndocrine hormone secreted into the blood stream away from the surfaceHormone communication Long distanceClassic hormone conducted through the bloodstream to the rest of the bodyNeurohormone neuron release hormone at synapse through exocytosis into the bloodstream Short distance Autocrine hormone act on the same cell of secretionParacrine hormone secreted by one cell and diffused to adjacent cellscan be both Short and Long Distance Neurotransmitters synaptic release of hormone from intersynaptic cleft to target cell distance traveled depends on the length of the axonLigandReceptorLigand Receptor Complextriggers cellular responseHomeostasis constancy regulation of internal environment Exaggerate effect unless inhibit by outside stimulusEx Oxytocin and control of Decrease stimulus uterine contractions inhibit initial amplify cervical stretch stimulus until baby is bornTypes of cell communication1Gap junction allow direct cytoplasmic transfer of electrical chemical signals between adjacent cells2Contact dependent signals occurs when surface molecules on another cell membrane bind to surface molecules on another cell membrane 3Local communication by chemical that diffuse through the extracellular fluid4Long distance communication combination of electric signal carried by nerve cell and chemical signalsLecture 2classification of hormone and control of releaseThree types of Hormone1Peptide Protein 3 or more amino acidsMost made in advance stored in vesicles synthesized like secreted proteinsMade in the ER ribosome directed by signal sequence fed protein into lumen of ERReleased by exocytosis upon a signalCPeptide in Water soluble dissolved in plasma short half like in plasmaactiveCleaved into a Bind to membrane receptorsandstrandsProcessing of hormones Preprohormone preprocessed hormoneaSeveral copies of the same hormone Ex 1THR3 AA 6 THR made each timebMore than one type of hormone Ex ACTHendorphinlipotropin made togetherCleaving and disulfide bonds ex InsulinGlycosylation ex FSH1Steroid hormone derived from cholesterol precursorMade on demand released from cell by simple diffusionWater insoluble travel in carriers in the bloodLong half life carriers protected from degradationDiffuse into cytoplasm or nuclear receptors some cases also act on plasma membrane receptorsHormone processing Steroid biosynthesis occurs in mitochondria and smooth ERType of hormone made depends on the enzyme present in cell same precursor for allaAdrenal cortex aldosterone and cortisolbOvary estardiol estrogens 1Amine derived from single amino acidsSynthesized only from tryptophan and tyrosineaMelatonin tryptophan derivative behave like both peptide and steroid hormone Darkness hormone secreted at night for sleepMade in pineal gland GI tract leukoctyes and other brain regions Transmits information for light and dark governs biological clockImmune modulation turns on and off immune systemAntioxidant decrease tissue damage and aging
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