Hormones chart (not all but most included).docx

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Michelle French

Hormones Hormone Type of Released Stimulus Mechanism of Functions Too hormone from action (targets) much/too little 1. Melatonin Amine Pineal gland Darkness; Circadian - trp secreted rhythm, immune derivative at night function, anti- (sleep) oxidant. Targets brain and other tissues 2. Parathyroid Parathyroid Low In bones, PTH Increases No hormone glands (chief plasma increases plasma Ca2+ parathyroid (PTH) cells) Ca2+ expression of concentration. glands: die RANKL on Increases from osteoblasts by phosphate hypocalcemia. increasing cAMP release from and decreases OPG bone and expression so that decreases more osteoclasts phosphate are formed leading reabsorption in to reabsorption kidney. from bones. Targets bone In kidney, PTH and kidney. increases reabsorption of calcium from filtrate and enhances calcium ions going into blood and prevents loss of urinary calcium and thus, increases Ca2+ reabsorption from distal tubule. PTH also acts on kidney to synthesize calcitriol (Vit D3) 3. Calcitriol Steroids Skin Low Calcitriol binds to Increases plasma Vit D receptor and expression of Ca2+ recruits ca2+ channels/ transcriptional binding factors. proteins/ PTH is crucial for transporters in forming active Vit kidney and D3. intestine and also RANKL and OPG in osteoblasts. Net effect is to increase plasma Ca2+ 4. Calcitonin Peptide C cells High Protects the (parafollicular plasma skeleton from cells) of the [Ca2+] Ca2+ loss during thyroid gland pregnancy and lacatation. Reduces activity of osteoclasts (inhibits bone resorption). Inhibits calcium reabsorption by kidneys. 5. Vasopressin Peptide Synthesized Low blood Vasopressin binds Increase water in pressure to P.M. receptors o reabsorption. hypothalamus, and high cells and triggers Targets distal released plasma increase in AC and convolutic from PPT. osmolarity cAMP, which tubule/collecting activates PKA. This duct cell causes aquaporin-2 membrane. water pores to exocytose on the apical membrane of the collecting duct and enhances water permeability. Water moves into cell and blood. 6. Steroid Synthesized ACTH, Increase Na+ Aldosterone in the adrenal High and K+ cortex. plasma reabsorption. [K+], Targets the angiotensi distal tubule and n II. collecting duct. Inhibited Targets kidney by high osmolarity (EC fluid) 7. Atrial Heart Increased Decrease Na+ natriuretic blood and H2O peptide volume reabsorption, increase K+ reabsorption.
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