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PSL301 Final Exam Test Study Sheet.docx

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Michelle French

stPSL301 1 Final Exam Study Sheet Page1 Blood Definitions Hematocrits Formed elements blood cells and the like Erythrocytes Red blood cells Leukocytes White blood cells Thrombocytes Platelets Phagocytes Leukocytes that can engulf things via phagocytosis Granulocytes Leukocytes that release cytokines Cytokines Released molecules eg Proteins that act to signalcause infammationPlasma o Proteins made by liverAlbumin 60Colloid pressure and carrierGlobulins 35Clotting factors enzymes and carriers for antibodiesFibrinogen 4Forms fibrin for blood clottingHematocritso In embryo these cells come from Yolk sac liver spleen bone marrow o After birth only from bone marrowHematopoiesis o 75 hematopoietic stem cell become erythrocytes 25 become leukocytes o ErythroblastReticulocyte erythrocyte o Megakaryocyte breaks down into platelets stPSL301 1 Final Exam Study Sheet Page2 o Colony stimulating factors from endothelial cells and white blood cells regulate process via cytokinesis Granulocyte colony stimulating factor induces creation of neutrophil rather than monocyteRed blood cells o No nucleus o Anaerobic metabolismo Life span 120 daysErythropoiesiso Regulated by erythropoietin synthesized in liver and kidneys in response to low oxygen o Nucleus pinches off nomoblast to form retiulocyte which matures to erythrocyteRed blood cell removal Bilirubin secreted by liver in bile and by kidneys as urine o Bilirubin causes jaundiceDue to high turnover of red blood cellsLiver cannot remove bilirubin or too much is absorbed from intestines Treatment with blue light breaks it downAnemiao Too little hemoglobin o Caused byDestruction of stem cells via drugs and radiation Inadequate nutrients iron folic acid Vitamin B12 Low erythropoietinPolycythemia o Too much hemoglobinstPSL301 1 Final Exam Study Sheet Page3 o Caused byAbnormal erythrocyte precursorsLow oxygen deliveryImmune SystemDefinitions Opsonin Coats pathogens to promote phagocytes to engulf Diapedesis Movement of phagocytes through endothelia Physical barriers skin mucous acid lysozymeInnate Immunity o Rapid and non specific o PhagocytesCan move through endothelial cells of blood vessels via diapedesisChemotaxis helps it locate pathogens Chemotaxins from bacterial toxins cytokines or tissue injury productsEngulfs via phagocytosisToll receptors on phagocyte bind to markers on pathogen or antibodies on pathogen o Antibody is opsoninAntigen digested in lysosome and antigen fragments are displayed on cell surfaceNeutrophils make up 5070 of white blood cellsRelease cytokines that cause fever and inflammationMacrophages and dendritic cellsDerived from monocytes and reside in tissues o Natural killer NK cellsKill cells infected with virus or are cancerous
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