Study Guides (390,000)
CA (150,000)
UTSG (10,000)
POL101Y1 (200)
all (10)

POL101Y1 Study Guide - Political Spectrum, Direct Democracy, John Stuart Mill

Political Science
Course Code

of 22
Chapter 1
- based on age of enlightenment when people began to believe that they could
improve their lives by taking positive action instead of passively accepting
- interrelated concepts that try to describe reality
- used to mobilize people
- political ideologies come from rational reasons for the brutal methods and
confusion that result from urbanization/ industrialization
1) political term
2) view of present and vision of the future
3) action oriented
4) directed towards the masses
5) simplified to be motivational/ relatable
Chapter 2
The Political Spectrum
The Political Spectrum
Place on spectrum can change according to the issue at hand
Place on spectrum depends on
1) age young are more likely to be liberal
2) psychological liberals are more open minded and tend to deal with disorder
3) nature of the person- do you think people are naturally good or evil?
4) Economics
4 main elements of political change
direction progressive or retrogressive
depth major or minor adjustment in society
speed more upset= more rapidly they want to see change
method official/unofficial, legal/ illegal, smoothly/ abruptly, peacefully/ violently
- discontent with status quo
- favor revolutionary change/ immediate change
- extremists change societies most cherished values
want to maximize human rights
fast change
egalitarianism (classlessness)
suspicious of police oppressing the common people
Government should protect against the economic elite
appreciate laws more than radicals so less likely to use violence
CLASSICAL LIBERAL: natural law, private property, government oppresses
CONTEMPORARY LIBERAL: private property is a social right, but
government can improve life through social engineering (invasive policies
for = start)
satisfied with society yet understand there is room for improvement and
recognize areas in need of modification
gradual change without disturbing social order
defends status quo
change will make things worse because human reason can’t solve society’s
authoritarian control
police power controls the threats to status quo
property rights above all else, oppose government involvement in economy
TORIES: advocate ruling of the upper class but to govern in society’s best
ENTREPRENEURS: government should not be involved in economy so the
cream of the crop can rise to the top
retrogressive change
war is good
favor unequal distribution of wealth
the entire reactionists side = the entire left side
basically satisfied
nominally satisfied
extremely dissatisfied
Chapter 3
Nation State
Nation (union)
State (structure)
Nation State
Sociological term for
people united by some or
- Language
- Ethnicity
- Culture
- Geography
- Proximity
- Political values
Political term for
- People (citizens/
- Territory (defined
- Recognized gov’t
- Sovereignty (legal
Nation= unity
State= struture
Hard balance
Example Quebec
Natural Theory
- definition of humanity is based on the existence of the state
- people are human only within the state (through expression of political
- organic society = instinct to interact community state (formal
community), therefore state is the natural environment
Force Theory
- state is a result of the strong imposing their power over the weak
- NEGATIVE conquest over the weak so no legitimacy
- POSITIVE force is a primary value in society (statism) used to justify
actions allowing the arranging of affairs to be in order
Divine Theory
- particular group of people were chosen by God
- the state paves the way to paradise providing peace and order, creating the
atmosphere in which people could best serve God
- at some point in all states’ history they see themselves as chosen by God
- divine selection is self identified
- this status leads to justified conquest
Divine Right Of Kings
- monarch as the personification of the state
- original donation = Adam’s fall from grace was his power over all other
creation so all other kinds are his heir
Social Contract theory
- ruler and ruled have obligations to one another