POL101Y1 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Vladimir Lenin, Petite Bourgeoisie, Liberal Democracy

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Published on 14 Apr 2013
Political Science
Affirmative Action: an action or policy favoring those who tend to suffer from
discrimination; enforces demographic quotas; meant to prevent racist decision-making
(Problems of Democracy, Oct. 24)
Ancient Democracy: a participatory, direct form of democracy based on freedom of the
collective over freedom of the individual (Constant and the Rise of Liberalism, Sept. 19)
Balance of power: a system of alliances in which weaker states band together against
stronger states, creating an equilibrium that generally prevents continental war (Cold
War Realism, Nov. 28)
Bipolarity: (as opposed to multipolarity, unipolarity, etc.) a distribution of power in which
two states have the majority of the power and influence in the international system (Cold
War Realism, Nov. 28)
Bourgeoisie: according to Karl Marx, the ruling class that owns the means of production
and exploits those who are beneath them (The Rise of the West and Marxism, Sept. 26)
Clash of Civilizations: a book by Samuel P. Huntington that reacts to Fukuyama’s ―end
of history‖ theory; argues that Fukuyama presents an Eurocentric, narrow reading of
world history, that ―liberal peace and prosperity‖ are illusory, and that what matters in the
post- Cold War era are civilizational fault lines (Introduction, Sept. 12)
Civilization: (according to Huntington) the highest cultural grouping of people and the
broadest level of cultural identity people have short of that which distinguishes humans
from other species; defined by both common objective elements, such as language,
history, religions, customs, and institutions, and by the subjective self-identification of
*Class/Class Struggle: (according to Marx) the material struggle between the two major
classes of society, the Bourgeoisie and the Proletariat; the inevitable polarization of the
two classes, the disappearance of the middle class (petite bourgeoisie), and the
eventual uprising of the Proletariat to create a Communist society, abolishing private
property as well as the ruling class (The Rise of the West and Marxism, Sept. 26)
Collective Action Problem: a situation in which multiple individuals would all benefit
from a certain action, which, however, has an associated cost making it implausible that
any one individually can or will undertake and solve it alone (Wikipedia);
Communism: a political theory founded by Karl Marx which advocates for a classless
society in which all property is publicly owned and the State is the executive committee
of the ruling class: the Proletarians (The Rise of the West and Marxism, Sept. 26)
Constitutionalism: a complex of ideas, attitudes, and patterns of behavior elaborating
the principle that the authority of government derives from and is limited by a body of
fundamental law (Wikipedia)
Democracy: a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who
can elect people to represent them.
Deterrence: the doctrine by which states use intimidation and threats to prevent an
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