POL101Y1 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Centrality, Parliamentary System, Presidential System

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Benjamin constant the liberty of the ancients compared with that of the moderns (sept. 20th) modern liberty individual rights [& freedoms] Individual is sovereign only in appearance, though independent in private life [sovereignty restricted & nearly always suspended; all ever done with it is to renounce it] liberty of the ancients collectively but directly [collective freedom & the complete subjection of the individual to the authority of the group] Individual is nearly always sovereign in public affairs but a slave in all private relations. commerce in ancient times = lucky accident (\ it"s worth, \ commerce war); in modern times war costs more than. constant: ancient liberty no longer applicable: can"t any longer enjoy the liberty that the ancients had, consisting in constant active participation in collective power. Our liberty has to consist of the peaceful enjoyment of private independence.

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