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POL101Y1 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Centrality, Parliamentary System, Presidential System

Political Science
Course Code
Jeffrey Kopstein
Study Guide

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POL 101 Democracy, War &
Benjamin Constant The Liberty of the Ancients Compared with that of the Moderns
(Sept. 20th)
Representative govt = modern discovery
Modern liberty – individual rights [& freedoms]
individual is sovereign only in appearance, though independent in private life [sovereignty
restricted & nearly always suspended; all ever done with it is to renounce it]
Liberty of the ancientscollectively but directly [collective freedom & the complete
subjection of the individual to the authority of the group]
individual is nearly always sovereign in public affairs but a slave in all private relations
Commerce in ancient times =lucky accident ( war); in Modern times war costs more than
its worth, commerce
Constant: Ancient liberty no longer applicable:cant any longer enjoy the liberty that the
ancients had, consisting in constant active participation in collective power. Our liberty has
to consist of the peaceful enjoyment of private independence.
Aim of ancients: share social power among the citizens of a single country (‘liberty’)
Aim of moderns: be secure in their private benefits (‘liberty’ – guarantees accorded by
institutions to these benefits)
Abbe de Mably (rep of system following maxims of ancient liberty) – citizens should be
entirely held down so that the nation can be sovereign; individual should be enslaved so that
the people can be free
Constant:Because we live in modern times, I want a liberty suited to modern times.
“True modern liberty is individual liberty.
“Their governments were stronger than individuals, whereas in our time individuals are
stronger than the political power.
“Therefore, far from renouncing either of the two sorts of freedom [...] necessary to combine
[...] raise largest number of citizens to highest moral position.

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Jouissance‘enjoyment’; ‘benefits
Moeurs‘customs, ‘habits, ‘way of life, ‘morality
Manifesto of the Communist Party (Sept. 27th)
Bourgeoisieclass of modern capitalists
Proletariatclass of modern wage labourers
oModern bourgeois society established new classes, conditions of oppression & forms of
struggle in place of old ones
oOur epoch [of bourgeoisie] has simplified class antagonisms: Bourgeoisie & Proletariat
oCorrelation between development of bourgeoisie & corresponding political advance [of that
class]; put an end to all feudal, patriarchal, idyllic relations
oUniversal interdependence of nations (material & intellectual production) creations =
common property
oCompels all nations to adopt bourgeois mode of production introduce ‘civilization’ into
their midst (become bourgeois themselves) = creates a world after its own image
oAgglomerate population, centralized means of production, concentrated property in a few
hands political centralization
oEpidemic of over-production repetitive commercial crises
oSolutions for crises: (1) enforced destruction; (2) conquest of new markets & exploitation of
old short term solution, augments long-term problem
oLabourers = commodities, subject to same conditions
oModern Industry has converted the little workshop of the patriarchal master into the great
factory of the industrial capitalist.
oEvery class struggle is a political struggle
oRevolutionary class – holds the future in its hands – the Proletariat
oFall of bourgeoisie & victory of the proletariat are equally inevitable

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oAim of Communists: formation of the proletariat into a class, overthrow of bourgeois
supremacy, conquest of political power by proletariat
oAbolition of private property. {Communist theory}
oClerical Socialism hand in hand with Feudal Socialism
— Christian Socialism is but the holy water with which the priest consecrates the heart-
burnings of the aristocrat
oReactionary Socialism: (1) Feudal; (2) Petty-Bourgeois; (3) German or “True
oConservative/Bourgeois Socialism – economists, philanthropists, humanitarians, improvers of
the condition of working class, organizers of charity, etc.
— want all the advantages of modern social conditions without the struggles & dangers
necessarily resulting therefrom
oCritical-Utopian Socialism & Communism
— bears an inverse relation to historical development – still dream of experimental realisation
of their social Utopias
oCommunists everywhere support every revolutionary movement against the existing social &
political order of things
oWorking Men of All Countries, Unite!
October 4th
Criteria for Assessing Electoral Systems
Choice of an electoral system hinges on 2 sets of judgements:
1)empirical:likely consequences of various options
2)normative: how good or bad; how important or trivial
Electoral system set of rules which govern the process by which citizens opinions
about candidates & parties are expressed in votes [..] translated into the designation
of decision-makers
- constituency structure
- ballot structure
- electoral formula
Accountability incentive; representation by reflection
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