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Notes for Jan 10 reading

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Department
Political Science
Course Code
POL101Y1
Professor
Jeffrey Kopstein

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January 10, 2011 [Rwanda in Retrospect by Kuperman]
Foreign Affairs
US is searching for a comprehensive policy to address the deadly criminal acts such
as the mass killings in Bosnia, Somalia, Rwanda
oUS ground troops shouldnt be used in humanitarian interventions during
ongoing civil wars
oAn exception should be made for cases such as genocide. Support for
intervention to stop genocide is voiced out.
US troops couldve saved the victims of genocide in Rwanda. But they wouldve be
able to save half the lives the genocide killings even if a large force is deployed upon
reports of genocide.
Prelude To Genocide
Rwandan politics were dominated by Tutsi before 917% of the popn, the rest were
Hutus and less than 1% were aboriginal Twa)
Hutu overtook the country in a violent struggle that forced the Tutsi popn to move
to neighbouring states.
HUTU groups: a) PARMEHETU assumed power upon independence
Tutsi refugees invaded Rwanda many times trying to return to power. So, the
HUTUs killed the domestic Tutsis.
NW Hutu came into power and dominated Rwandas pol, eco and military life.
Large-scale violence against domestic Tutsi disappeared for 15 yrs (invasions by
refugees stopped)
RPA (Rwandan Patriotic Army) invaded northern Rwanda and RPF (Front) invaded
north Rwanda.
RPA and RPF forced the Hutu officer (Habyarimana) to agree to share power with
them in Arusha
Rwandan leader tried to modify the agreement with UN peacekeepers.
Habyarimana bribed the opposition and appeals to solidarity against the Tutsi
(succeeded in splitting the radical factions from the main opposition parties)
Habyarimana and the extremists: trained militias, broadcasted anti- Tutsi hate
radio, plotting to kill moderate Hutu leaders, Tutsi civilians.
His plane was shot down when he was trying to agree to the int’l pressure to
implement the accords. So, the genocide plan was carried on.
Govt radio station and the extremists urged the Hutu to revenge the death of the
president by attacking the Tutsi. (Rape, rob, killing, arson)
Lots of tutsi took refuge in central gathering places (churches, school, hospitals)
oThey regrouped in hundreds to tens of thousands in these sites
www.notesolution.com
Tutsi were able to defend themselves since the Hutu were poorly armed (throwing
rock behind a wall as a shield) but those who tried to flee were killed by Hutu.
For several days, the supplies of Tutsi were running off and Hutu were unwilling to
casualties by attacking
When Hutu became well-armed, the situation changed. (i.e. throwing grenades at
the site, shooting at those who tried to flee, entering the site to kill the survivors
Some tutsi were able to escape and some hid under the dead bodies. But many were
caught at roadblocks and were killed.
Some tutsi were lucky to be able to hide in places such as pit latrines or at homes of
sympathetic Hutu
14 days into genocide. April 21 a large portion of Rwandas Tutsi had been killed
(250,000) in two weeks. Fastest genocide rate.
Slowed down the genocide:
oHutu tried to hide the genocide from the outside world and the rest of
Rwanda (until Tutsis are completely wiped out). So they killed them in a
secretive manner (kunwari may kaso na ngwa etc. (more tutsi survived this
way)
oTutsi led rebels and strong Hutu opposition prevented the mass killings
Killings worsened. Tutsi fled on foreign guarded gathering sites.
Late April: genocide is almost complete. Most Tutsis were killed while the remaining
are slowly until they were stopped by the rebels military victory and belated French-
led intervention
75% of tutsi killed
The Knowledge Gap
US got its info from NGOs. (its too late when they found out that theres a genocide
April 20)
Aspects of reporting:
oTutsi rebels didnt want the foreign countries to get involved with their
victory’. Asked them to leave asap.
Reports: tutsi is winning rather than a one-sided genocide
oDecline in reports of violence was because most foreigners and reporters have
left
oDeath counts are incorrect and underestimated (doesnt suggest genocide)
until the april 20th report of Human Rights Watch and Red Cross
oFocused the reports on a small city (Kigali) so it failed to show the genocide
(Hutu concealment efforts and Western and reporters leaving)
Ppl thought that the violence was military or criminal related, not an
extermination campaign
www.notesolution.com

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Description
January 10, 2011 [Rwanda in Retrospect by Kuperman] Foreign Affairs US is searching for a comprehensive policy to address the deadly criminal acts such as the mass killings in Bosnia, Somalia, Rwanda o US ground troops shouldnt be used in humanitarian interventions during ongoing civil wars o An exception should be made for cases such as genocide. Support for intervention to stop genocide is voiced out. US troops couldve saved the victims of genocide in Rwanda. But they wouldve be able to save half the lives the genocide killings even if a large force is deployed upon reports of genocide. Prelude To Genocide Rwandan politics were dominated by Tutsi before 917% of the popn, the rest were Hutus and less than 1% were aboriginal Twa) Hutu overtook the country in a violent struggle that forced the Tutsi popn to move to neighbouring states. HUTU groups: a) PARMEHETU assumed power upon independence Tutsi refugees invaded Rwanda many times trying to return to power. So, the HUTUs killed the domestic Tutsis. NW Hutu came into power and dominated Rwandas pol, eco and military life. Large-scale violence against domestic Tutsi disappeared for 15 yrs (invasions by refugees stopped) RPA (Rwandan Patriotic Army) invaded northern Rwanda and RPF (Front) invaded north Rwanda. RPA and RPF forced the Hutu officer (Habyarimana) to agree to share power with them in Arusha Rwandan leader tried to modify the agreement with UN peacekeepers. Habyarimana bribed the opposition and appeals to solidarity against the Tutsi (succeeded in splitting the radical factions from the main opposition parties) Habyarimana and the extremists: trained militias, broadcasted anti- Tutsi hate radio, plotting to kill moderate Hutu leaders, Tutsi civilians. His plane was shot down when he was trying to agree to the intl pressure to implement the accords. So, the genocide plan was carried on. Govt radio station and the extremists urged the Hutu to revenge the death of the president by attacking the Tutsi. (Rape, rob, killing, arson) Lots of tutsi took refuge in central gathering places (churches, school, hospitals) o They regrouped in hundreds to tens of thousands in these sites www.notesolution.com
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