January 10, 2011 [Rwanda in Retrospect by Kuperman]
US is searching for a comprehensive policy to address the deadly criminal acts such
as the mass killings in Bosnia, Somalia, Rwanda
oUS ground troops shouldn’t be used in humanitarian interventions during
ongoing civil wars
oAn exception should be made for cases such as genocide. Support for
intervention to stop genocide is voiced out.
US troops could’ve saved the victims of genocide in Rwanda. But they would’ve be
able to save half the lives the genocide killings even if a large force is deployed upon
reports of genocide.
Prelude To Genocide
Rwandan politics were dominated by Tutsi before 917% of the popn, the rest were
Hutus and less than 1% were aboriginal Twa)
Hutu overtook the country in a violent struggle that forced the Tutsi popn to move
to neighbouring states.
HUTU groups: a) PARMEHETU – assumed power upon independence
Tutsi refugees invaded Rwanda many times trying to return to power. So, the
HUTUs killed the domestic Tutsis.
NW Hutu came into power and dominated Rwanda’s pol, eco and military life.
Large-scale violence against domestic Tutsi disappeared for 15 yrs (invasions by
RPA (Rwandan Patriotic Army) invaded northern Rwanda and RPF (Front) invaded
RPA and RPF forced the Hutu officer (Habyarimana) to agree to share power with
them in Arusha
Rwandan leader tried to modify the agreement with UN peacekeepers.
Habyarimana bribed the opposition and appeals to solidarity against the Tutsi
(succeeded in splitting the radical factions from the main opposition parties)
Habyarimana and the extremists: trained militias, broadcasted anti- Tutsi hate
radio, plotting to kill moderate Hutu leaders, Tutsi civilians.
His plane was ‘shot down’ when he was trying to agree to the int’l pressure to
implement the accords. So, the genocide plan was carried on.
Gov’t radio station and the extremist’s urged the Hutu to revenge the death of the
president by attacking the Tutsi. (Rape, rob, killing, arson)
Lots of tutsi took refuge in central gathering places (churches, school, hospitals)
oThey regrouped in hundreds to tens of thousands in these sites