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POL101Y1 Study Guide - Collective Action, Switchman, Kyoto Protocol

Political Science
Course Code
Jeffrey Kopstein

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POL 101 2 nd
Term Notes
Nationalism and Conflict
Nationalism: ideology of nations (nations want their own state)
oNationalism invents nations*
oNation- group of people who believe they share a common fate, history, culture,
and language
oNationalism: state and nation should be congruent—leaders should share common
culture with the people (nation)
oFeeling of a large group who we share culture with and that state should share as
well, a connection to something
Never existed in history til recently--- no congruence between nation and
state til 100 years ago
Congruence of cultural group and state- only under modern
Need for congruence:
oNationalism and modernization
High culture and low culture: European monarchs and populations just
spoke whatever language, all different
Industrialization: need for universalization of high culture
Communicating with people you dont know; need for a common
language/ culture
oNeed to coordinate/ communicate—non-context bound communication—
universally understood language
oOrganization to create/ impose standards: states (system of education, language,
Why we speak English: English beat Natives
Nations are constructed projects of elites
oProducts of aggregated individual beliefs
oCreate identity—even Ontario and other provinces keep a true Canadian identity
School: teach history
oIf your culture is not adopted as high (universal) culture, you face a systematic
Industrial society: states are service organizations for providing common cultures
Ukraine- saw they were going to be disadvantaged by Russians/ Poles
oHistorians and linguists created Ukranian grammar book: the proper way; and
made great stories (wrote history- told a national narrative)
All nations tell stories- stories of their “history” with elements of the truth
Hungarians: there since 900... Austrian-Hungarian empire in 19th century was the
beginning of their nationalism, speaking Hungarian, not German
Slovaks: western speaking peasants, created history (1993 independence)
oNationalism creates nations
Social creations form nations

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Washington: architecture designed to awe/ intimidate
oState first, nation second: France and Britain- ‘nation building’
oNation first, state second: Germany and Italy- unification in 1890s
Strong democracies vs. Radical dictatorship
Countries after WW1 are multinational
Significant ethnic minorities
oIssues of accommodation, population exchange, extermination
Ethnic vs Civic nationalism:
oBasis of belonging: cultural or political
oEthnic- share culture, born into culture
oCivic- political allegiance
You can become American [political allegiance]
Membership based on allegiance is somewhat thin identity
Canada: liberalism vs. communitarians
oIndividual vs. group rights
oEx. Official holidays- multiculturalism: is it real?
oState fund and preserves ethnic groups
Multiculturalism- positive: great cooperation; costs:contact hypothesis against
Welfare state: would not want to support other nationalities
USA/ Canada: weak welfare states
Rest of World: must have nation-state
oWest imposed pattern of developing world without allowing
development world to go through necessary processes
United States should be United Nations. UN should be US.
Primordialism: nations are old; transcend time
Built upon ethnic groups (nations existed before nationalism)
oIndustrial Revolution- need for communication
Universalization of high culture- need for common language
Rulers imposed their culture on the people
Elite impose their view of nation on everyone else
People cannot resist the power of the strong- nation building
Gellners analysis: elite project
Anderson:imagined communities
Print capitalism- books were printed in Latin; printers began to
print in the vernacular (local) languages; created discrete units of
people who could read
Civic nationalism- political... USA (thin)
Ethnic nationalism- cultural... Germany (thick)
Passed down through blood and ancestry
Rwanda: 1962

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oBelgians show up—ethnic cards: Hutu “lesser tribes vs. Tutsi “descended from
North- preferred by Belgians
o1990: Tutsi from Uganda invaded Rwanda and began Civil War
o1993: treaty; fighting back and forth
oApr 6, 1994: Rwanda and Burundi: presidents killed—begins genocide
Genocide (1): intent to destroy a national, ethnic, racial, or religious group
oOccurs- killing, harming, physical destruction (conditions of life), prevent births,
transfer children to different groups
Acts against political groups are excluded from the definition
Crimes Against Humanity (2):
oMurder, enslavement, deportation, imprisonment, torture, rape, committed against
any civilian population
War Crimes (3): violations of laws and customs of war
oNazis- explicitly trying to exterminate Jews
Unprecedented systematic, deliberate killings of one group
Nuremberg trials: basis of genocide definition
Created by those who won war and try the Nazis for what they did
to civilians, not about war
Tribunal created in an ad-hoc way: was the killing deliberate? Systematic?
Intent to kill?
Crimes against humanity can occur without war
Objections to convention on genocide:
oExcludes targeted political/ social groups
oProving intention beyond reasonable doubt is difficult
oMeasuring (scale)—how many deaths equal genocide?
oNazis tried at Nuremberg
oChange in international law
Govts are accountable for what they do to their own citizens
States are fundamental unites of international system
Sovereignty: control over country
Nuremberg- state sovereignty does not trump everything; have
responsibility to their own citizens and other states
Soldiers are bound to refuse to participate in genocide
oMemoralize, collective/objective history, deterrent
oHitler’s orders do not make it okay for German leaders to participate in genocide
Responsibilities of Individual States:
oEven after theyve been defeated/ replaced, perpetrators of past crimes may still
have power
oMilitary responsible for genocide/ crimes may still control weapons/ force
oPast perpetrators may have loyalty of significant parts of population
How new democracies deal with past perpetrator powers (ex. Latin America):
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