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POL200Y1 Study Guide - Cystic Fibrosis Foundation, Bloody Knife, Marrano

Political Science
Course Code
Clifford Orwin

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There are two types of principalities, they are either hereditary or they are new.
- if they are new they are either entirely new or they are like limbs added on to
the hereditary state of the ruler who acquired them
- dominions that are acquired by a ruler are either used to living under the
rule of one man, or accustomed to being free
- they are either acquired with soldiers belonging to others, or with one’s own
- it is much easier to hold onto hereditary states than it is to hold on to new
- an hereditary ruler will never lose his state unless some extraordinary and
overwhelming force appears that can take it away from him
o because his state has belonged to his family from one generation to
another, memories of how they came to power, and motives to
overthrown them, have worn away
- new principalities are the ones that present problems
- the problem is that people willingly change their ruler, believing the change
will be for the better, and this belief leads them to take up arms against him
- they find out in time they are mistaken because you always have to give
offense to those over whom you acquire power when you become a new
ruler, both by imposing troops upon them , ad by countless other injuries
that follow as necessary consequences of the acquisition of power
- you make enemies of all those to whom you have given offense in acquiring
power and you cannot keep the good will of those who put you in power
- at the same time you cannot use heavy handed methods against them, for you
are obliged to them
- after a ruler has regained power in rebel territories, he is much more likely to
hang on to it, the rebellion gives him an excuse to punish delinquents
- the territories that are newly added on to a state that is already securely in te
possession of a ruler are either in the same geographical region as his
existing possessions and seek the same language, or they are not
- in order to get a secure hold on them one need merely eliminate the
surviving members of the family of their previous rulers
- if the old territories and the new have similar customes, the new subjects
will live quietly
- he who acquires neighoouring territories in this way, intending to hold on to
them, needs to see ot two things
o he must ensure their previous ruler has no heirs
o he must not alter their old law or impose new taxes
- when you acquire territories in a region that has a different language,
different customes and different institution, then you realy have problems
- one of the best policies, and one of the most effective, is for the new ruler to
go and live in his new territories
o The Sultan of Turkey did this in Greece p.9
- For if you are on the spot, you can identifiy difficutlues as they aise, and can
quickly take approtproate action
- If you are there in person, the territory will not be plundered by your officials
- As a consequence they have more reason to love you

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- Anyone who wants to attack the territory from without will have to think
twice, so that, if you live there, you will be unlucky indeed to lose it
- The second excellent policy is to send colonies to settle in one or two places
- Colonies do not cost much to run. You will have to lay out little or nothing to
establish and maintain them. You will only offend those from whom you seize
fields and houses to give to your settlers, and they will only be a tiny minority
within the territory
- All the rest will remain uninjured
- People should either be caressed or crushed
- If you do them minor damage they will get their revenge, but if you cripple
them there is nothing they can do
- If you rely on an occupying army instead of colonies, it costs a good deal
more and you acquisition will be a loss, not a gain
- Your army will make more enemies than colonies would, for the whole
territory will suffer from it
- And these are enemies who can hur you, for they remain even if beaten, in
their own homes.
- Anyone who finds himself with territory in a region with different customes
from those of his hereditary possessions should make himself the leader and
protector of neighbouring powers who are weaker than he is, and should set
ou to weaken his powerful neighbours
- Outside powers will always be urged to intervene by those in the region who
are discontended
- As soon as a foreign power enters into a region, all the local states that are
weal rally to it, for they are driven by the enby they have felt for the state that
has excercized predominance over them
- The invader does not have to make any effort at all to win ovr these lesser
- In politics as well, if you foresee prob;lems while they are far off they can
easily be dealt with; but when, because you have failed to see them coming,
you allow them to grow to the point that anyone can recognize them, then it
is too late to do anything
- Whenever men do what will siceed towards this end, they will be praised, or
at least not condemned. But when they are not in a position to make gains,
and try nevertheless, then they are making a mistake, and deserve
- One should never allow a problem to develop in order to avoid a war, for you
end up not avoiding the war, but deferring it to a time that will be less
Chapter Four
- the principalities recorded in history have been governed in two different
ways: either by a single individual, and everyone else has been his servant, or
by a monarch together with barons, who, not by concession of the ruler, but
by virtue of their noble lineage, hold tha rank

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- such barons have their own territories, and their own subjects: subjects who
recognize them as their lords and feel a natural affection for them
- in those states that are governed by a sing;le individual and his servants, the
sovereign has more authority in his own hands; for in all his territories there
is no one recognize as having a right to rule except him alone
- if the subjects obey anyone else, they do so because he is the ruler’s minister
and representative, and they do not feel any aprticular loyalty to these
subordinate authorities
- it would be difficult to occupy the lans of the sultan for two reasons (p. 15)
o the local authorities of that kingdom will not invite tou to invade
o nor an you hope hose arounf the ruler will rebel, making your task
- since they are all his slvaes, and indebted to him, it is harder to corrupt the,
and even if you can corrupt them, they are not going to be much use to you
- the opposite is true in kingdoms governed like that of France
o it is easy to invade them, once one has gained support of some local
- but when you try to hold on to power, you will find the nobility, both those
who have been your allies and those tou have defeated, present you with an
infinity of problems
- you cannot win their loyalty, or wipe them out, so tou will always be in
danger of losing your kingdom should anything go wrong
- the crucial factor in these differing outcomes is not the strength or weakness
of the concueror but the contrasting character of the societies that have been
Chapter Five
- When the states one qquires by conquest are accustomed to living under
their own laws and in freedom, there are thee policies one can follow in
order to hold on to them
o The first is to lay them waste
o The second is to go and live there in person
o The third is to let them continue to live under their own ;aws, make
them pay you, an create there an administrative and political elite
who will remain loyal to you
- It is easier to rule a city that is used to being self-governing by employing its
own citizens than by other means, assuming you do not wish to destroy it
- He who becomes the ruler of a city that is used to livning under its own laws
and does not knowck it doen, must except to be knocked doen by it
- Whenever it rebels, it will find strength in the language of liberty and will
seek to restore its ancient constitution
- No matter what one does, and what precautuinons one takes, if one does not
scatter and drive away the original inhabitants, one will not destroy the
memory of liberty or the attraction of the old institutions
- But when cities or provinces are used to being ruled by a monarch, and one
has wiped out his relatives and descendants, then matters are very different
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