1. Look at a page of the
, any page. One character says one thing;
another character says another; the work proceeds by means of a series of clashes.
What familiar literary form does the Platonic dialogue resemble? How do we go
about interpreting such a work, whose author never speaks directly to us in his
own name, but instead pro v ides us with a cast of characters each of whom presents
his own take on the world?
Freedom, to be intolerant is to commit a great sin. Discovering the ineffectual truth. In
modernity we find itself above all alternatives. The focus is to explore theoretical alternatives
b/w modernity and others. Plato is not a character in these dialogues. The truth is dramatic or
dialectical. Dramatic and subtle. One of the characters socrates makes other characters very
angry. Pay attention to Sophocles. The presentation of the human world is crucial in this
drama. Understand these human interaction and the truth about it. Public things or
affairs=THE REPUBLIC. Ordinarily republic mean form of government. But also politics in the
sense of a way of life.cephalus is the father..what he says goes. Piety supports patriot. Those who
can do, those who cant they talk about it according to cephalus. Why does sophocles spend his life
talking. Cephalus is content with his life in old age in response to sophocles question. Wwould it be
good if eros played no role in manss life at all ? nostaligia for his lost youth by cephalus.
Classical thought aims higher than modern political thought and therefore aims for the
beautiful rather than erotic.
a good character and money is necessary for a good old age in response to Socrates old age rude
question. Cephalus is not the greatest money maker. He is a little ashamed o admit the fear of
punishment in the afterlife. He didn’t even concern himself with justice before. The money
consoles him against what lies beyond. This is the initial presentation of the problem of justice. It is
practice only under duress. In fear of the evils inflicted by the gods. it Is not that justice is good
for you but the divine punishment is bad. Socrates objection has no mention of the g
Gods, the principle behind Socrates’ reformation. Although all truth telling to other has become
dependent on justice. Polemarchus intervenes; in duty to stand by his father. Cephalus’ Heir, who
understands justice as selfless loyalty. Can justice be defined in terms of self interests.
Polemarchus seeks to defend cephalus’ position. 331 e-332 b. POLEMARCHES LEAVES THE GODS OUT OF THE
COVERSATION AS WELL. He tries to explain justice on the basis of friendship. THERE ARE LIMITS TO
EUALITY. Most of us believe in the equality of opportunity. Help those who helped us and harm
those who harm us…Christian context. In cephalus exchange there is a selfish concern. In
polemarchus THEREI IS MORE CONCERN WITH FRIENDSHIP HE IS A MORE NOBLE SOLE THAN HIS FATHER.
Cephalus uses money to atone for his sins. There is always a certain political dimension to justice.
They both define justice with respect to self interest. Polemarchus tries to solve the dichotomy of
jusice, with the friend and enemy distinctions. Socrates 332 c. autocraft a useful art rather