Was Democracy Just a Moment?
Democracy may not be the system that will best serve the world.
Democracy is a form of determinism driven by our own ethnocentricity.
Democracy Are Value-Neutral
•Sudan’s newly elected democracy led to anarchy, a military regime where only 27% of
population could read.
•In Brazil democracy faces a backlash from millions of badly educated and newly urbanized
dwellers in teeming slums, who see few palpable benefits to Western parliamentary systems.
•Both a middle class and civil institutions are required for successful democracy, democratic
Russia which inherited neither from the Soviet regime, remains violent, unstable, and poor
despite 99% literacy rate.
•America cannot establish democracy over the world. Haiti with 22,000 American soldiers
dispatched on the island, only 5% participated in an election, chronic instability continues,
and famine threatens.
•Rwanda: The new political parties became masks for ethnic groups that organized murderous
militias, and the coalition nature of the new government led to the genocide in 1994.
•The Eastern European countries liberated in 1989 already had, in various degrees, the
historical and social preconditions for both democracy and advanced industrial life.
•Democracy often weakens states by necessitating ineffectual compromises and fragile
coalition governments in societies where bureaucratic intuitions never functioned well to
•Democracy neither forms states nor strengthens them initially, multi-party systems are best
suited to nations that already have efficient bureaucracies and a middle class that pays income
tax, and where primary issues such as borders and power-sharing have already been resolved.
The New Authoritarianism
•As elected governments in Turkey become increasingly circumscribed by the army, a quieter
military paternalism is likely to evolve in place of periodic coups.
•Authoritarian or hybrid regimes, no matter how illiberal, will still be treated as legitimate if
they can provide security for their subjects and spark economic growth.