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POL201Y1 Study Guide - Final Guide: Democratic Consolidation, Thomas Carothers, Liberal Democracy

Political Science
Course Code
Sophia Moreau
Study Guide

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Devlopment policies and Environmental agendas
Author: Woodhouse
oEnvironmental issues effect all aspects of development policy
oRural poverty was identified with failure to assure the productive use of
renewable natural resources, such as land, water and forest
oPerspectives on the environment in development theory
oModernization Theory
Natural resources don’t constitute a limit on economic growth
Conversation through human-free reservations, nature was to be
separated from development
Environmental impact of industrial society was forced onto to the
international political agenda
Global regulation
oSeeks to rationalize the use and management of
environment by converting it into commodities governed
by the market
oNatural capital used to generate more other forms of capital
oDepletion of nat ural capital results from the overuse of the
resource that is not reflected in its market price
oAlternative perspectives: Populist, Structuralist, post-modern
Seeks to defend rural populations from urban
Emphasize the effectiveness of local institutions in
regulation natural resource use, the special role of
women as users and managers of resources
“People centred” approach aims to place the poor at
the center of understanding the environmental
aspects of development
Emphasizes local land ownership and community
based conversation of wildlife
The people that live in these rural places have the
most knowledge of the land and animals, thus
would be best at conserving it with proper
Structuralists emphasize the role of power in how
natural resources are to be used or abused
Environment in Development Practise
Convention on Climate Change and Kyoto protocol
oHole found in ozone layer
oCall to reduce emissions that caused this
Dilemmas in development
Author: David Simon
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Growing controversy about the means of development, whether it is religious,
spiritual or moral, there has been a large debate on how to go about development.
The origins of development as a studied subject came from the 18th century
Thomas Malthus, as it was intended to develop others into civilized and religious
Post-world war 2 developments came to be known as a progressive
transformation of a society.
Radical critiques of established practice generally aim to influence the
Progressive approaches not readily accepted by donors
The bigger the donor institutions are, the less they help because of the amount of
bureaucracy involved.
Problems of development in globalization
The power vested in multi-national corporations and international
organizations to the point member states have become subsidiary
Local agency has been known as important in development and antipoverty
intiatives, however they are constantly undermined by the changing global
People trying to development their nation through multi-national
organizations juxtaposes the grass-roots approach
Neoliberal trade agreements with countries in the global south have hindered
development and worsened inequality.
Global south understanding the notion that development cannot be pursued at
all costs, as there are social and environmental aspects to account for.
Analyzing the technological impact of intervention
oWho bears costs and who reaps the benefits
oWhether it is sustainable and justifiable
oEssential to examine the cultural impacts of introducing certain
Technology can make life easier and cut many costs
However, it can also be used for oppression through government surveillance.
oTechnology could create unemployment if popular industries become
oMarginalization of those not in contact with new technologies
Democratizations in Africa
Authors: Stephen Brown, Paul Kaiser
oAfter 1989 Africa experienced a resurgence of democracy, with many
countries holding multi-party elections varying in quality.
oFor the most part leaders intended to seize the state rather than reform it,
resulting in more authoritarian regimes and military coups
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oKnown as one of the premier democracies in Africa.
oThere naturally resources have been well managed since
oNatural resources don’t always result in development, as the
Congo and Nigeria have been negligent with their abundance of
oThey have a bicameral parliament, with a house of chiefs to
represent the many different rural ethnicities. This helped establish
the link between the modern government and the traditional
oThey have an open forum for people to offer their opinion on new
and existing policies.
oFaced with problems such as economic dependency and ethno-regional
cleavages Benin was not a good prospect for democracy
oAfter independence, Benin was in a volatile stage, experience 10
government changes in 12 years
oKerekou the president called a National conference inviting ‘teachers,
students, the military, government officials, religious authorities,
nongovernmental organizations, more than 50 political parties, ex-
presidents, labor unions, business interests, farmers, and dozens of local
development organizations
oThe convention declared itself sovereign and elected a new Prime
oThis Estate-General model from the French Revolution was used in other
African countries as well
oIn 1996, Benin held its first election with Kerekou making a comeback.
oBenin made a relatively peaceful transition to a democracy although it did
have its share of corruption it remains stable
Explanations for Success
oModernization focuses on the traditional societal structure’s inability to
oDependency puts colonialism as the reason African countries have trouble
oCertain actors such as rulers and the outside community have played a
large role in the democratization of Africa as in all four countries they
began with democratic leaders, however only Botswana retained a their
oElitism has been a large impediment of democratization in Africa but with
foreign influences many leaders agreed to democratic elections.
Democracy without Illusions
Author: Thomas Carothers
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