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POL203Y1 Study Guide - Final Guide: Reverse Racism, Multinational State, Progressive Era

Political Science
Course Code
Ryan Hurl
Study Guide

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Political Parties and Re-Alignment
- Essay: Show that you can explain a question in political science the disagreement don’t know
what the truth is.
Review : Elections and The Impact of Presidential Primaries
- Once you have a shift from the older system, you’re creating a more disconnect from the public
because participants in primary elections are ideologically speaking are not going to be
reflective of the general public
- Problems; major: it’s difficult to see whether the initial assumption is true.
- Undoubted affect: money!!! Running for election becomes a full time job much earlier in the
electoral process and costs a lot of $$; also, this will prevent particular candidates from running
at all
Campaign Finance Reform
*Major amendments were added in 1974
** Such as Buckley v. Valleo, 1976
Basic dynamic of CFR congress makes attempt to constrain spending by creating certain hard
money limits (individuals or groups of individuals to candidates) courts step in to remove some limits
Electability, Moderation, Party Unity,
Effective Governance
Public, contested, extended
Consequences: party disunity, ideological
extremism, ineffective governance?
only system
FECA, 1971*: reporting, donation limits, partial public funding
Judicial Intervention**: no individual* or overall spending limits;
“hard” vs. “soft” money
BCRA , the Great Money Chase, and Citizens United

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(such as individuals on own campaigns) reduces effectiveness of law money seems to find a way to
protect itself
- At some point, shouldn’t individual rights bend?
- Broader issue- do we really want to create a situation where rights are put aside once we
conceive another public good as more important????
o One of the typical reactions of the citizens united is it places restrictions on unions and
corporations and they are not people!!!!!
o It could lead people to limit the role of money in other ways
Eg; primary reform!!! (which will never happen)
Any attempt to alter the scope of the primary system would be see as a retreat
from democracy
o Campaign finance also increases access / lobbying
Parties and elections
1. Parties and Ideology in American Politics
2. Critical Elections and Re-alignment?
3. Political Parties from Clinton to Obama
Key idea: Party ideology is relatively stable; electoral coalitions are not.
Three Aspects of Parties
- They are organizations that attempt to influence politics by running elections and getting into
political office
- Parties in the electorate party supporters // consisting of a set of coalitions, either regional,
religions, etc probably the major fault line is how the party relates to CLASS!
- Parties as Organizations various officials, actionaries, who are involved in helping certain
candidates to win elections
- Parties in government role parties play in organizing party legislators
Parties in the
Parties as
Parties in

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Ideology Thermometer Scores of
Party Identifiers and Activists
Notes: Activists are defined as respondents who engaged in 3 or more campaign activities as coded in
vcf0723. Leaners are coded as partisans. The Liberal/Conservative Index (vcf0801) measures a
respondent's relative thermometer ratings of "Liberals" and "Conservatives." It is calculated by
subtracting the Liberal Thermometer score from 97 and averaging the result with the Conservative
Thermometer score. Cases are weighted by vcf0009.
- This graph relative ideological difference between identifiers and activists (low = left wing)
- There are differences:
- Even now party polarization is an elite level phenomenon
o Partisan elites are far apart and the public is in the middle
Why is there a 2 party system in the USA?
* e.g. first past the post elections (Congress) and electoral college system limits the scope of
third parties (in contrast with systems based on some kind of proportional representation; ballot access
restrictions, campaign finance laws
- Notion that there’s a limited ideological spectrum it’s not just that it has a 2 party system, it’s
that they aren’t that far apart on issues, and there’s no ideological room in the US for a socialist
- The underlying nature of political in the US has always had a sort of duality the political
interests tend to produce different blocks of voters that tend to be more or less sustained over
- The rules of the game itself is going to inhibit 3rd parties, but it’s a weak argument because the
US doesn’t have proportional representation – aka the rules prevent this from happening
Canada has this??
- In contrast to people who say parties are basically the same they are really different party
ideology as manifested in the set of beliefs by party elites
Party Ideology: Consensus or Conflict?
- Parties have exhibited relative similar ideologies but they have changed
The Rules
of the
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