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POL208Y1 Study Guide - Militarized Interstate Dispute, Immanuel Kant, Cuban Missile Crisis


Department
Political Science
Course Code
POL208Y1
Professor
Lilach Gilady

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POL 208 Vocabulary
Lec1
Systematic organization effect: An effect in which various different factors organize the
IR system‟s very complex structure.
Levels of Analysis:
different categories of approaching the analysis of IR issues or structures, through
dividing the levels into
Individual
decision makers
government structure
society
international relations
world system
Induction:
an approach of solving question through collecting one data that leads to next evidence.
Deduction:
an approach of solving question through generating hypothesis by assumption and
prediction and corresponding evidences
Lec2
Sovereignty:
Considering people, territory, bureaucracy and the king as a legal entity that cannot be
violated by anyone from other country. It allows monopoly over the functions of the state
in a defined territory, excluding all external intervention (monopoly over the legitimate
use of force). Only 1 ruler in the region, and the authority of the region had equal power
to other leaders.
Paradigm:
Group of theories that shares fundamental assumptions. Realism, Liberalism, etc.
Lec3
The State of Nature:
Hobbes‟ theoretical model of the world in which consists of no rules and no society. It
claims the human life to be “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short”. It is constructed
upon the assumption that people are rational and prioritize their own survival before
anything, as the survival is the only human rights of nature. Therefore;
Person‟s right of nature justifies violence against others
Renouncing the rights of violence is impossible because there is no enforcer/ruler

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Leviathan is the only existence that could enforce stability. Citizens must give up
their independence in order to gain stability
Social constructs such as morality, justice and property can only exist when the
state is strong and stable; therefore its existence solely depends on the presence of
Leviathan.
*Application to IR*
Instead of individual, we talk about states. Nations would constantly go to war in the state
of nature. Leviathan = world government. War is in a way right of nature…we fight to
defend ourselves. It allows the realist theory to kick in. Just like billiard, states push the
others in pockets without considering the “inside” of balls.
Anarchy:
Form of a society without leader or higher governing authority beyond the state. No
world government. It focuses on survival that derives from self-help and self-interest,
which in result creates constant potential for violence. Because each state care only about
herself, there is always the fear of defection and limited potential for cooperation.
The Security Dilemma:
The dilemma in which states face due to the fact that the increase of security in one state
is a threat for the others. Constant potential of conflicts urges states to be ready to defend
themselves anytime, however this could be done solely by increasing force or gaining
allies. This in fact produces an indirect threat to others which could change their behavior
to be more aggressive. The dilemma: How can we increase our security without
threatening others?
Realism:
IR theory that recognizes states to be the main actor, and the international system to be an
anarchic world that struggles for power. It considers power to be the most important
element in IR, and is used in relative term; country must be stronger than the other in
order to make them do what they would not otherwise do.
It recognizes states‟ main objective to maximize their security (power) as the world
always faces potential conflict. As a result, sometimes it is inevitable for us to violate
basic rules because the international system must be separated from ethics. State‟s
survival must be considered before any other subject.
Neorealism:
Theory developed by Kenneth Waltz to analyze the international system more
scientifically. It considered the implication of anarchy to be the need to maximize
security, and the major difference between international/domestic politics. Distribution of
power is different to each state, thus it leads to different behavior among states. This
leads us to focus on the world system level of analysis, as some states are significantly
more strong (important) than the smaller ones.

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Unipolarity:
World structure with one great power and numbers of others that are all not strong
enough to threaten the big power. (ex. Rome)
Bipolarity:
World structure with a “pole” created by allies formed by two big opposing powers. (ex.
Cold War)
Multipolarity:
Words structure with many strong countries, but none capable of being the dominant
power. (ex. WWI, old Europe)
Lec4
Liberalism:
IR theory that recognizes the actors (not limited to state only) to be rational and prefers to
avoid conflict if it harms their prosperity and well being. State is a reflection of
individuals, thus the collective will is produced rationally.
Perpetual Peace:
Developed by Immanuel Kant, which rejected the separation between moral imperative
and the political realm. The theory developed after 1795‟s Basel Treaty, which Kant
believed to be a treaty not for pursuing a true peace but rather a political peace that only
aimed to satisfy France and Prussia‟s convenience (they were both in a situation they
couldn't afford war with each other). Observing this, Kant believed the perpetual peace to
be the mission for all human beings, and thus everyone must unite as one establish
world federation and recommend social interactions across borders (peace = borderless).
His idea
Laissez-faire:
Minimal governmental intervention in economic affairs. The market must work by itself
in order to have the best possible outcome.
*Application*
Because individuals are rational, we recognize that trade generates more profit, and war
brings loss. This makes us want to trade more and fight less liberal peace.
Neoliberalism:
More scientific model of liberalism that focuses on the need of institutions. Institutions
can impact the entire world, and thus influence the individual nature of behavior in larger
scale. It emphasizes the goal of institution. (Ex.???
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