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Political Science
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John Haines
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Tuesday, November 30th 2010
x Nuclear Warfare
- Hiroshima and Nagasaki were first examples of actual use of nuclear weapons in wartime
- Primary concern to end war > destroy japan
- Unconditional surrender
- Warning to the soviets
- Bombs used: power of 12 000 tnt > equiv. to 200 b29 bombers
- Effect of nuc. Bomb:
- i. the blast
- ii. The heat radiation
- iii. Nuclear radiation > lasting damages
- nuc. Bombs work in two ways: fusion, fission
- power of the nuc. Technology increased with the development of the H Bomb
- > over 50 million tons of tnt
¾ Shift from the sword to the shield
- Elements of deterrence in the realm of nuclear war:
i. Phsy. Factor of total war is enough of a reason not to go to nuclear war.
ii. capacity of a second strike: if enemy believes you will not be able to retaliate with
equal force, than there is no deterrence to attack
- Must have the capacity for a second strike/strike back against initial attack
¾ Massive Retaliation > Flexible Response
- Deterrence was established during the cold war quickly between the us and the ussr
- the capacity of total retaliation from both sides > lack of flexibility
- is it worth it?
- Makes diplomacy impossible > forg. Policy is completely under the umbrella of nuclear
- US in response to the risk of total war by accident > came up with, flexible response>
- Flexible response > meeting soviet attack with the same means, proportionality
- US allies, Germany, upset with this policy as nuclear retaliation was a means of protection
for west Germany
- NATO had to come to an agreement with the policy of flexible response
Extended deterrence > prevented both sides from using nuclear weapons
- High number of USSR + WARSAW pact > only way to defend western Europe was nuclear
- Some countries in Europe did not believe that the US was willing to use nuclear weapons in
order to defend Europe > main country in disbelief was France
- Was a core issue within the framework of NATO
- France decided to begin their own nuclear weapon in order to protect themselves
- Deterrence must be in the eyes of your enemies, not in the eyes of your allies
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