POL208Y1 Study Guide - Soft Power, Hegemony, Asymmetric Warfare

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Published on 14 Aug 2014
School
UTSG
Department
Political Science
Course
POL208Y1
Professor
Page:
of 26
Wars 10/29/2012
Voluntary assignment- soldier tower assignment-remembrance day
www.virtualmemorial.gc.ca
pick one name – take a photo or pencil etching – go online and find as much about that person- where they
died and when submit to TA before week of midterm- 2 points added to midterm grade
IR Theory and War
-tries to look at war as a recurring phenomena that can be studied scientifically
--one type of behavior that we need to explain – war is a catergory
--why does it recur?
--what conditions increase/decrease the probability of war? General rules that govern war; probability of war
--mainly focused on great powers
--until recently focused on interstate war:
realist thinking (State centric)
history (WWI WWII)
nuclear weapons***- most important concern during cold war- drew attention to interstate wars
Causes of war- 3 images
1st image
(bio/socio/psych)
individual level – stemming from nature of individuals : human nature
2nd image
(domestic pol/eco)
state level – domestic politics drive war in what ways? ; regime type, economic interests. Interest groups
3rd image
(world system)
balance of power; polarity; power transition; offense/defense balance
1st image
-explains what humans in general go to war
-Frans de Waal- anthropologist
--alliances, balance of power
- behavior in international relations - actual fighting
Human Fallibility
-Greed, fear, hate, etc
-Miscommunication
-Human error- humans are fallible
-Belief and perceptions
outcome of human nature and its shortcomings
problem? can tell us why wars recur but cannot tell us about conditions of war, which war is more likely.
Human nature is constant, cannot explain variations(periods of peach and periods of war)?
2nd image
Falklands War
“Two bald men fighting over a comb” – (Borges)
Argentinian islands- controlled by Britain – supports british rule- sheep, fish; not great appeal for most
people; cause of war between Britain and Argentina in 80s
Argentina: Why the attack?
National interest
-fisheries
-potentially some mineral deposits
-identity, sovereignty, national pride – always reminding them of past colonial times
-however: difficult living conditions; inhospitable population
why decide to go to war at the time they do?
1982- not good time for Argentinians
UK about to withdraw HMS Endurance and to scrap its carriers; why not wait?
Understand what is happening inside Argentina
Domestic Conditions in Argentina
1976-Military Coup (junta)
1981- Army General Leopoldo Galtieri replaces prior military leadership (supported by Air Force and Navy)
Political and economic pressures
-the economy is deteriorating quickly
-thousands of ‘missing’ people(mass execution, torture, corruption)
-anti Junta demonstration; pro democracy pressures
Divergenary measurement
Why Attack?
Rational calculus
-no downside to invasion if one expects to be thrown out of office anyway
-probability of cusses would increase if Argentina waits-however it would be too late for the Junta (national
interest vs narrow political interest)
-Junta becomes very popular after the invasion