POL214Y1 Study Guide - Final Guide: Chinese Head Tax In Canada, Ochlocracy, Meech Lake Accord
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SECOND SEMESTER STUDY GUIDE (READINGS /LECS) Semester two
Canadian Political culture
• A political culture consists of the characteristics and values, beliefs and behaviors of
the society, in regard to politics. The society’s political culture defines what is political
for that society. What is it legitimate for government to do?
• The things that government wouldn’t do without even a debate. What is unacceptable
and imbedded in the culture? More specifically there are ideologies and within that policy
promises. Politicians couch their language and rhetoric within the confines of political
culture. There are things American politicians will say that Canada’s never will. Such as
the rhetoric regarding gun control.
• Layers of political culture.
• Liberal values bestowed by the “Mother Country”.
• The values we inherited from Britain, which we share with other English speaking
• National Canadian Political Culture.
• The values set out by CRF, socialism aka social democracy.
• English Canada vs. Quebec, regional differences (east vs. west/ prairies v BC), there are
also differences within provinces.
The British societies were settled by immigrants who brought small L liberalism with
them and as a result these societies are fundamentally similar.
• Trial by jury
• An independent judiciary
• Right for accused to face there accuser in open court
• Free elections.......
These values began in England and migrated to the rest of Europe.
The peace sign example of gestures have different meanings depending on the culture.
Canadians often ask what makes us different than Americans?
• Most of Canadians live in urban areas. Are legislative representation does not represent
the demographic reality of Canada. Rural populations are over represented.
• Canada isn’t sociologically bilingual. Quebecers and Acadians are, most English
Canadians do not speak French.
• WWI is major nation building event for Canada. Beaches at Normandy vimy ridge
reasons why Europeans love Canadian flag- not peacekeeping rep.
• There are significant differences between US and CAN, individualism v collectivism,
melting pot v multiculturalism, POGG v pursuit of happiness, us more religious than
Canada, US has more inequality while Canada has government driven egalitarianism.
• Liberal personal autonomy, leads to personal responsibility. If you succeed it’s to your
credit if you mess up it’s your fault. This is truer in the US than Canada as we have more
Russell readings 63,65,66,67,73,75,76
Wilfred Laurier #63
Catholic liberalism is not political liberalism. Liberalism is not what is happening in
France or Italy. Those are revolutions. Liberal institutions are a source of pride for
Canadians. This reading is a speech laurier delivered while still an MP to explain the
concepts of conservatism and liberalism to Quebecers who are unfamiliar with these
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British concepts. Laurier is a fierce liberal and believed that there was wrongs in ‘all
human affairs’ which needed reform
Reading 65 The Regina Manifesto.
1933 CCF doctrine which calls for public healthcare, egalitarianism. Socialism through
democratic means interestingly calling for abolition of senate. Against imperialist wars
#66 Lament for a nation (1965) George Grant
Traditional Canadian conservatism places restraints on privatization when it will interfere
with the public good. Grant feared that Diefenbaker was turning Canada in the direction
of American individualism. To avoid this fate much attention must be paid to Quebec
Bourassa feared American-saxonism taking over with homogeneity of industrialization.
The protestant ethos of ‘time is money’. Catholicism would not survive in a franco-
american society Grant predicts.
#67 Conservatism, Liberalism, and Socialism in Canada: an interpretation (Glad
American socialism is dead but In Canada it is one of the primary political forces, this is
why a pan-north American view is flawed. Examines “hartzian approach” which is to
study societies founded by European countries as fragments thrown off from Europe.
Hartz sees English Canada as the same as America in that it did not inherit socialism
from its European forbearers. America follows Calvinist tradition while French Canada
has a catholic ideology. Hartz believes that a past of toryism leads to socialism in the
present – America had no toryism so presently there is no socialism. Horowitz objects to
the idea that English Canada and the US are the same.
#73 Hartz-Horowitz at twenty: Nationalism, Toryism, and Socialism in Canada and
the US (h.d. Forbes
The Canadian bourgeoisie is fragmented with a touch of “toryism”. Liberalism is
connected to American nationalism and any criticism of it smells of treason. Tories share
some traits with socialists including That equality of opportunity doesn’t supersede
equality of outcome, as society is more than a conglomerate of competing individuals.
#75 The Decline of Deference (Neil Nevitte 1996)
Canadian values changed in the 1980s, this coincided with the rise of free trade and
increased support for Quebec nationalism. The rise of activism through fractured non
partisan movements has also happened in other western states. It should be associated
with industrialism rather than the Canadian political psyche. The Author offers three
perspectives on Canadian value changes: 1. Canada has become an advanced economic
state, with a workforce that reflects this by tertiary sector employment and general
affluence. 2. Canada as a North American State, Canadian values are working from a
narrow frame of comparisons to the US, founding circumstances being the primary
explanation for difference. 3 Explanation being Canada as an immigrant society,
changing patterns of population replacement and newfound diversity.
#76 Fire and Ice (Michael Adams, 2003)
Canadians are very well informed to American circumstances while the same is not true
of Americans to our circumstances. Adams advances the rarely heard thesis that
Canadians and Americans are becoming Increasingly different from each other.
‘Although it may seem that Canada and the US are on the same page it is usually because
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we are reading over their shoulder’. Americans are more religious than Canadians
according to polling data by significant margins (468) today but in the 1960s Canada had
higher church attendance is one way to show change in culture. Violence has rapidly
become a norm in the USA but not in Canada. Individualism is a primary trait of the
American dream Canadians are more willing to look out for one another.
Brooks Chapter 2
. The ideological differences of Canadians and Americans have different explanations,
among them the fragment theory and different founding circumstances. America was
Canada was counter revolutunary accepting British loyalists (tories) after they lost in
. Canada has three main political ideologies Liberalism, socialism, and conservatism. For
contemporary and classical definitions see table 2.1 on page 43
. Quebec has its own political culture, first it was more conservative but after 1960s
accepted liberalism, since then it has had competing visions of separatists and federalists.
. Natives are the other group that has recognized rights that disrupt the unity of Canada
with a history of violence towards natives and native protests that have turned violent.
. Freedom to Americans is all about individual liberty and is engrained in the culture,
specifically with glorifying criminals through film as well as any other against the grain
. The second amendment and firearms are another key differences between CAN/USA as
Canadians do not distrust the government at nearly as extreme a level.
. 9/11 lead to a more security focused America and freedom oriented Canada but it is
hard to say that core American beliefs have changed even as laws have.
. The official policy of multiculturalism also separates us from Americans who have a
melting pot rather than a cultural mosaic. Multiculturalism has been criticized for causing
. Americans are more likely to allow violence in their lives going back to mobocracy
(post-revolutionary war) where Canadian politics imply “freedom wears a crown” with
the order the monarchy provides giving citizens a better environment to use their
Political Culture Continued (lecture #2)
Charles Pachter “noblesse oblige” juxtaposition of Canadian wilderness and old British
civilization and the notion of duty. Was viewed as antiestablishment originally but now
has become iconic.
Big differences between us and Americans Is our deference to authority and preference
for big government. Canada is also known for recognition of group rights (Quebecois and
• American conservatives are more vocal about free enterprise than Canadians,
government intervention in economy is acceptable in Canada and there is no significant
libertarian streak in Canadian political culture
• Surveys are primary tool to measure culture, but don’t work for historical examples.
The Hartz-Horowitz fragment theory and Lipset’s formative event theory are examples of
history being used to measure culture
• Liberalism and conservatism came from European setters, The british loyalists rejected
after the American revolutionary war founded Canada. The British gave the loyalists the
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